Keefe, critique. Management Learning, 28, 115–133. Montgomery, S.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keefe, J.W. (1979) Learning style: An
overview. NASSP’s Student learning styles: Diagnosing and proscribing
programs (pp. 1-17). Reston, VA. National Association of Secondary
School Principles.

Rose, C. &
Nicholl, M. J. (1997). Accelerated learning for the 21st Century: The six-step
plan to unlock your master-mind. USA: Dell.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Riding R.
(2005). Individual differences and educational performance. Educational                                                                           
                  Psychology,
25(6), 659–72.

Reynolds, M.
(1997). Learning styles: A critique. Management Learning, 28, 115–133.

Montgomery, S.
(1996). Addressing Diverse Learning Styles through the Use of Multimedia, University
of Michigan.

Pressey, Robinson and Horrocks (1967). Essentials of Educational
Technology S.K Mangal PHI Learning Pvt limited New Delhi 2009, p.142

 Thambusamy, R. X.(2002). Learning Styles
and Teaching Styles. An Investigation of The Language Learning Styles and
Language Teaching Styles of A Selected Sample of ESL Students and Lecturers of
Uitm. Unpublished Thesis. University Malaya: Malaysia.        

 Nasir, Syed Jamal Abdul. (2006). Learning
Style among Multi-Ethnic Students in Four Selected Tertiary Institutions in the
Klang Valley. Ph.D. thesis. University Putra Malaysia: Malaysia.

 Sizemore & Schultz. (2005). Ethnicity and
Gender Influences on Learning Styles in Nursing Students from An
Hispanic-Serving Institution. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education.4 (4):
343-353.

 Noar, G. (1972) Individualized Instruction:
Every child a winner, New York John Wiley and Sons.

 Maya, S.S. and Rao, K.A. (2004) Association
between learning style preference and performance in the examination by medical
students. Journal of Educational Research and Extension, 41(1), 23-29.

 Gibson, T.J. (1976) Psychology for Classroom,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 260.

 Erton, I. (2010). Relations Between
Personality Traits,Language Learning Styles and Success in Foreign Language
Achievement. Hacettepe Egitim Dergisi (H.U. Journal of Education). 38:
115-126.

 Dunn, R. and Dunn, K. (1978) Teaching students
through their learning styles: A practical approach, Reston, Virginia, Reston
Publishing Company, 401-404.

 Cronbach, L. and Snow, R. (1977) Aptitudes and
Instructional Methods: A handbook for research on interactions.  New York: Irvington.

 Bichler, R.f. (1974) Study Guide: Psychology
Applied to Teaching. Boston, Honghton Mifflin Publication.

 Barsch, J.R. (1996) Barsch Learning Style
Inventory. Academic Therapy Publication. Novato, CA: USA. Retrieved Fromhttp://www.tarleton.edu/Faculty/mcgregor/ASD%2
04203/4203/Learning%20Styles%20 Characteristics/Barsch.pdf

 Abidin, Rezaee, Abdullah and Singh (2011) International
Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(11).

 Agrawal, R. and Chawla, N. (2005) Influence of
cooperative learning on academic achievement. Journal of Indian
Education, XXXI (2), 52-59.

 Agrawal, S.C. (1987) Learning style among
creative students. Allahabad, Central  Publishing
House.

 Ausubel,D.P. (1968) Educational Psychology: A
cognitive view, New York, Rinehart and  Winston,
658.

References:

 

 

The findings of
the present study reveal that visual learning style is the most preferable
learning style among secondary school students followed by auditory and
kinaesthetic learning style. The most preferred
learning style among male and female students was visual followed by auditory
and kinaesthetic style. However, percentage of female students (51.3%) was
higher than male students (50.7%) in favour of visual style of learning.
Moreover the similar results were obtained for rural (51.4%), urban (58.8%) and
semi-urban students (43.2%). It may be because human brain has a power
to decipher visual imagery much faster and visual sense is so active in humans
that it not only enables us to recognise information at much faster rate but it
also helps us to memorise information for a long period of time.

Conclusion:

 

The
above table reveals that male and female secondary school students do not
differ significantly so far as there learning style is concerned. The results
of this study is in coordination with the  studies conducted by Thambusamy (2002) who
concluded that the gender was not a significant variable in Engineering
students learning style preferences and Nasir (2006) who also found that the
learning styles were not significantly different between male and female
students. However, this result differs somewhat from that of Sizemore &
Schultz (2005) where the male students had a significantly greater frequency of
the Visual style than female students. it was also found that rural, urban and semi-urban
students show no significant difference in their learning styles. The findings
of the present study reveal that the most preferred learning style among
secondary school students is Visual style of learning (50.7%) followed by
auditory(26%) and Kinaesthetic (23.3%) learning styles. The results found is
contradictory to the traditional belief that learners mostly learn through
activities or ‘Learning by Doing’.

 

N

Group

Chi-Square Value

D.F.

Level of  Significance

 

 
300

Gender

5.242

3

                      0.15

 

Place of Living

8.895

6

                      0.18

 

Table III Significance of
difference in Learning Styles of Secondary school students in                 relation to Gender and Place of living.

 

The
review of the table II indicates that when preferred learning styles was
observed in secondary school students in relation to their gender and place of
living it was found in coordination with the results obtained in table I i.e.
the most preferred learning style among male and female students was visual
followed by auditory and kinaesthetic style. However, percentage of female
students (51.3%) was higher than male students (50.7%) in favour of visual
style of learning. Moreover the similar results were obtained for rural (51.4%),
urban (58.8%) and semi-urban students (43.2%).

 

Groups 

                                 Gender  

                          Place of
living  

Type of
Learning Style    

Male(N=150)   Freq.           %

Female(N=150)
 Freq.            %

Rural(N=35)
Freq.          %

Urban(N=131)
Freq.            %   

Semi-Urban
(N=134)
Freq.            %

Visual

76           50.7

 77           
51.3    

18           51.4

77           58.8

58             43.2

Auditory

41           27.3

37            24.7

9            25.7

29            22.1

40             29.9

Kinaesthetic

33           22

36             24

8           22.9

25             19.1

36             26.9

 

Table II Descriptive
statistics related to the preferred Learning Style of Secondary school                 students in terms of gender and place of
living.

 

The table I
reveals that the most preferred learning style among secondary school students
is Visual (50.7%) followed by Auditory (26%) and Kinaesthetic
(23.3%). It means that visual learners are more prevalent among the secondary
school i.e. majority of students learn through visual aids than auditory or
body movements. The result of this study is in coordination with the results of
the study conducted by Maya and Rao (2004) who also reported that most of the students appear to be
visual learners.

 

 
No.
of Stds. 

Types
of Learning Style  

 
Frequency

 
Percentage

 
Cumulative %
 

 
300

Visual

152

50.7

50.7

Auditory

78

26

76.7

Kinaesthetic

70

23.3

100

Total   

 

300

100.0

 

 

Table I  Descriptive statistics related to the
preferred Learning Style of Secondary school               students

RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION:

 

Chi-square Test

Measures of
central tendency

Percentage Statistics

SPSS

Statistical techniques used:

For obtaining information
about gender and place of living a personal data sheet had been constructed by
the researcher.

 

 ‘Learning Style Inventory’ developed by Sreekala and
Amalraj, (2012) which is a 3 point scale consisting
of 42 statements was used to study preferred learning styles. The inventory is
classified into three categories visual, auditory and kinaesthetic. The reliability
of the inventory was 0.9

Tools Used:

 

Sample

Male (150)

Female (150)

 
300

Rural
 

Urban

Sub urban
 

35

131

134
 

 

 

 All the secondary school students of district
Srinagar comprised the population of the study. A representative sample of 300
secondary school students belonging to five secondary schools were selected
from the population.

 Sample:

METHODOLOGY

 

2. To find out the
effect of the prominent demographic determinants i.e. gender and place of
living on learning style preferences of secondary school students.

1. To
investigate the most preferable learning style of Secondary school students.

The objectives
of this study are as follows:

OBJECTIVES OF
THE STUDY

 

Though many
studies have been conducted in the field of learning style and related variables,
a few attempts were made to study preferred learning styles of secondary school
students in relation to their gender and place of living. Hence the
investigator made an attempt to conduct a study on secondary school students
pertaining to this particular area. It is expected that the results of the
study would be helpful in organizing guidance and counselling programs for
school students for maximizing their academic performance by adopting proper
learning style.

Previous works
and investigations in the field of learning have indicated the existence of
individual difference in the learning process. Each Individual thinks,
perceives, remembers and solves problems in one’s own unique style. Trevathan
(2002) reported learning style as an important aspect of student learning
process that may influence academic achievement. Boys (2003), Oswald (2003) and
Maynes (2004) reported that there is a positive relationship between learning
style and academic achievement. Many studies have reported the significant effect
of learning style and achievement.

Significance of the study:

 

Keefe (1979) defines “learning styles as the
composite of characteristic cognitive, affective and psychological factors that
serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts
with and responds to the learning environment”. Letteri (1980) states that learning style refers to the style of
information processing, the storage and retrieval of information. Debellow (1990) defines the learning
style as the way people absorb process and retain information. Reiff (1994) states that learning style
can be described as a set of factors, behaviours and attitudes that facilitates
learning in a given situation. James and
Gardner (1995) states that the ways learner’s react to overall learning
environment make up the individual’s learning style. Vermunt (1996) defines learning style as coherent whole of learning
activities that students usually employ. According to Sarasin (1998), “the preference or predisposition of an individual
to perceive and process information in a particular way or combination of
ways”. Fleming (2001) opines
learning style as “individual’s preferred ways of gathering, organizing, and
thinking about information”. An overview of various definitions of ‘learning
style’ reveals that learning styles are consistent preferred ways of learning
which the individual learners employ during learning of various tasks.

Psychologists,
educationists and researchers have defined the learning style in different
ways. Following are the definitions given by the different authors:

Each person has
his or her own individual way of gathering and processing information, and
solving problems in day-to-day situations. These personal cognitive abilities,
acquired through a long  process of socialization
are called “learning styles” (Reynolds, 1997). Riding (2005) assured that
students are not all the same and that individual differences influence both
their learning and their academic achievement. Knowledge of one’s learning
style can lead to enhanced learning and helps the learner focus on improving
weaker points. Learning Styles analysis is also useful for informing the
teaching and learning process and can be used as a tool to enhance achievement
and inclusion. (Rose &Nicholl, 1997).

Every individual
has its own way of perceiving and understanding information.  Some people learn by oral repetition, some by
writing it out, while others may learn through practical work. Therefore every
learner has his own learning style. The learning styles play a crucial role in
how effectively the information is stored. Each learner has different ways of
learning that depend upon many personal factors and everyone has a distinct
cognitive learning style (Montgomery, 1996; Mumford and Honey, 1996).  Learning style can be described as a set of
factors, behaviours and attitudes that simplify learning for an individual. It
is the ability of learners to understand and process information in learning
situations. It is the learner’s habitual way of acquiring and processing
information. The idea of learning styles originated in the 1970s, and has
greatly influenced education.

Learning is an episode in which a motivated individual attempts to adapt
his behaviour so as to succeed in a situation which he perceives as requiring
action to attain a goal (Pressey, Robinson and Horrocks (1967). Learning is a
lifelong process and occupies very important place in human life. Learning is
not confined to school or a particular age only rather it is a comprehensive a
term which is involved to every aspect of life at all developmental stages. It
is the basis of success for every individual.

Introduction

Key Words: Learning style,
Secondary school students

The
study was conducted to analyse preferable learning styles among secondary
school students of district Srinagar. The present study is a modest effort to
find out the effect of gender and place of Living on learning style preferences
of secondary school students. A sample of 300 secondary school students of District
Srinagar of Jammu and Kashmir was selected for the study. Learning Style
Inventory (2012) by Sreekala and Amalraj was used to collect relevant
information for the study. Findings of the study indicate that the most
preferred learning style among secondary school students is Visual (45.7%) followed by Auditory (21.0%) and
Kinaesthetic (15%) It means that most of the secondary school students favoured
visual format of learning. It was also found that the most preferred learning style among male and female
students was visual learning style. Rural, urban and semi-urban students were
found to have  no significant difference
in their learning styles.

Abstract                                                                                  

Arshid Ahmad Najar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keefe, J.W. (1979) Learning style: An
overview. NASSP’s Student learning styles: Diagnosing and proscribing
programs (pp. 1-17). Reston, VA. National Association of Secondary
School Principles.

Rose, C. &
Nicholl, M. J. (1997). Accelerated learning for the 21st Century: The six-step
plan to unlock your master-mind. USA: Dell.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Riding R.
(2005). Individual differences and educational performance. Educational                                                                           
                  Psychology,
25(6), 659–72.

Reynolds, M.
(1997). Learning styles: A critique. Management Learning, 28, 115–133.

Montgomery, S.
(1996). Addressing Diverse Learning Styles through the Use of Multimedia, University
of Michigan.

Pressey, Robinson and Horrocks (1967). Essentials of Educational
Technology S.K Mangal PHI Learning Pvt limited New Delhi 2009, p.142

 Thambusamy, R. X.(2002). Learning Styles
and Teaching Styles. An Investigation of The Language Learning Styles and
Language Teaching Styles of A Selected Sample of ESL Students and Lecturers of
Uitm. Unpublished Thesis. University Malaya: Malaysia.        

 Nasir, Syed Jamal Abdul. (2006). Learning
Style among Multi-Ethnic Students in Four Selected Tertiary Institutions in the
Klang Valley. Ph.D. thesis. University Putra Malaysia: Malaysia.

 Sizemore & Schultz. (2005). Ethnicity and
Gender Influences on Learning Styles in Nursing Students from An
Hispanic-Serving Institution. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education.4 (4):
343-353.

 Noar, G. (1972) Individualized Instruction:
Every child a winner, New York John Wiley and Sons.

 Maya, S.S. and Rao, K.A. (2004) Association
between learning style preference and performance in the examination by medical
students. Journal of Educational Research and Extension, 41(1), 23-29.

 Gibson, T.J. (1976) Psychology for Classroom,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 260.

 Erton, I. (2010). Relations Between
Personality Traits,Language Learning Styles and Success in Foreign Language
Achievement. Hacettepe Egitim Dergisi (H.U. Journal of Education). 38:
115-126.

 Dunn, R. and Dunn, K. (1978) Teaching students
through their learning styles: A practical approach, Reston, Virginia, Reston
Publishing Company, 401-404.

 Cronbach, L. and Snow, R. (1977) Aptitudes and
Instructional Methods: A handbook for research on interactions.  New York: Irvington.

 Bichler, R.f. (1974) Study Guide: Psychology
Applied to Teaching. Boston, Honghton Mifflin Publication.

 Barsch, J.R. (1996) Barsch Learning Style
Inventory. Academic Therapy Publication. Novato, CA: USA. Retrieved Fromhttp://www.tarleton.edu/Faculty/mcgregor/ASD%2
04203/4203/Learning%20Styles%20 Characteristics/Barsch.pdf

 Abidin, Rezaee, Abdullah and Singh (2011) International
Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(11).

 Agrawal, R. and Chawla, N. (2005) Influence of
cooperative learning on academic achievement. Journal of Indian
Education, XXXI (2), 52-59.

 Agrawal, S.C. (1987) Learning style among
creative students. Allahabad, Central  Publishing
House.

 Ausubel,D.P. (1968) Educational Psychology: A
cognitive view, New York, Rinehart and  Winston,
658.

References:

 

 

The findings of
the present study reveal that visual learning style is the most preferable
learning style among secondary school students followed by auditory and
kinaesthetic learning style. The most preferred
learning style among male and female students was visual followed by auditory
and kinaesthetic style. However, percentage of female students (51.3%) was
higher than male students (50.7%) in favour of visual style of learning.
Moreover the similar results were obtained for rural (51.4%), urban (58.8%) and
semi-urban students (43.2%). It may be because human brain has a power
to decipher visual imagery much faster and visual sense is so active in humans
that it not only enables us to recognise information at much faster rate but it
also helps us to memorise information for a long period of time.

Conclusion:

 

The
above table reveals that male and female secondary school students do not
differ significantly so far as there learning style is concerned. The results
of this study is in coordination with the  studies conducted by Thambusamy (2002) who
concluded that the gender was not a significant variable in Engineering
students learning style preferences and Nasir (2006) who also found that the
learning styles were not significantly different between male and female
students. However, this result differs somewhat from that of Sizemore &
Schultz (2005) where the male students had a significantly greater frequency of
the Visual style than female students. it was also found that rural, urban and semi-urban
students show no significant difference in their learning styles. The findings
of the present study reveal that the most preferred learning style among
secondary school students is Visual style of learning (50.7%) followed by
auditory(26%) and Kinaesthetic (23.3%) learning styles. The results found is
contradictory to the traditional belief that learners mostly learn through
activities or ‘Learning by Doing’.

 

N

Group

Chi-Square Value

D.F.

Level of  Significance

 

 
300

Gender

5.242

3

                      0.15

 

Place of Living

8.895

6

                      0.18

 

Table III Significance of
difference in Learning Styles of Secondary school students in                 relation to Gender and Place of living.

 

The
review of the table II indicates that when preferred learning styles was
observed in secondary school students in relation to their gender and place of
living it was found in coordination with the results obtained in table I i.e.
the most preferred learning style among male and female students was visual
followed by auditory and kinaesthetic style. However, percentage of female
students (51.3%) was higher than male students (50.7%) in favour of visual
style of learning. Moreover the similar results were obtained for rural (51.4%),
urban (58.8%) and semi-urban students (43.2%).

 

Groups 

                                 Gender  

                          Place of
living  

Type of
Learning Style    

Male(N=150)   Freq.           %

Female(N=150)
 Freq.            %

Rural(N=35)
Freq.          %

Urban(N=131)
Freq.            %   

Semi-Urban
(N=134)
Freq.            %

Visual

76           50.7

 77           
51.3    

18           51.4

77           58.8

58             43.2

Auditory

41           27.3

37            24.7

9            25.7

29            22.1

40             29.9

Kinaesthetic

33           22

36             24

8           22.9

25             19.1

36             26.9

 

Table II Descriptive
statistics related to the preferred Learning Style of Secondary school                 students in terms of gender and place of
living.

 

The table I
reveals that the most preferred learning style among secondary school students
is Visual (50.7%) followed by Auditory (26%) and Kinaesthetic
(23.3%). It means that visual learners are more prevalent among the secondary
school i.e. majority of students learn through visual aids than auditory or
body movements. The result of this study is in coordination with the results of
the study conducted by Maya and Rao (2004) who also reported that most of the students appear to be
visual learners.

 

 
No.
of Stds. 

Types
of Learning Style  

 
Frequency

 
Percentage

 
Cumulative %
 

 
300

Visual

152

50.7

50.7

Auditory

78

26

76.7

Kinaesthetic

70

23.3

100

Total   

 

300

100.0

 

 

Table I  Descriptive statistics related to the
preferred Learning Style of Secondary school               students

RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION:

 

Chi-square Test

Measures of
central tendency

Percentage Statistics

SPSS

Statistical techniques used:

For obtaining information
about gender and place of living a personal data sheet had been constructed by
the researcher.

 

 ‘Learning Style Inventory’ developed by Sreekala and
Amalraj, (2012) which is a 3 point scale consisting
of 42 statements was used to study preferred learning styles. The inventory is
classified into three categories visual, auditory and kinaesthetic. The reliability
of the inventory was 0.9

Tools Used:

 

Sample

Male (150)

Female (150)

 
300

Rural
 

Urban

Sub urban
 

35

131

134
 

 

 

 All the secondary school students of district
Srinagar comprised the population of the study. A representative sample of 300
secondary school students belonging to five secondary schools were selected
from the population.

 Sample:

METHODOLOGY

 

2. To find out the
effect of the prominent demographic determinants i.e. gender and place of
living on learning style preferences of secondary school students.

1. To
investigate the most preferable learning style of Secondary school students.

The objectives
of this study are as follows:

OBJECTIVES OF
THE STUDY

 

Though many
studies have been conducted in the field of learning style and related variables,
a few attempts were made to study preferred learning styles of secondary school
students in relation to their gender and place of living. Hence the
investigator made an attempt to conduct a study on secondary school students
pertaining to this particular area. It is expected that the results of the
study would be helpful in organizing guidance and counselling programs for
school students for maximizing their academic performance by adopting proper
learning style.

Previous works
and investigations in the field of learning have indicated the existence of
individual difference in the learning process. Each Individual thinks,
perceives, remembers and solves problems in one’s own unique style. Trevathan
(2002) reported learning style as an important aspect of student learning
process that may influence academic achievement. Boys (2003), Oswald (2003) and
Maynes (2004) reported that there is a positive relationship between learning
style and academic achievement. Many studies have reported the significant effect
of learning style and achievement.

Significance of the study:

 

Keefe (1979) defines “learning styles as the
composite of characteristic cognitive, affective and psychological factors that
serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts
with and responds to the learning environment”. Letteri (1980) states that learning style refers to the style of
information processing, the storage and retrieval of information. Debellow (1990) defines the learning
style as the way people absorb process and retain information. Reiff (1994) states that learning style
can be described as a set of factors, behaviours and attitudes that facilitates
learning in a given situation. James and
Gardner (1995) states that the ways learner’s react to overall learning
environment make up the individual’s learning style. Vermunt (1996) defines learning style as coherent whole of learning
activities that students usually employ. According to Sarasin (1998), “the preference or predisposition of an individual
to perceive and process information in a particular way or combination of
ways”. Fleming (2001) opines
learning style as “individual’s preferred ways of gathering, organizing, and
thinking about information”. An overview of various definitions of ‘learning
style’ reveals that learning styles are consistent preferred ways of learning
which the individual learners employ during learning of various tasks.

Psychologists,
educationists and researchers have defined the learning style in different
ways. Following are the definitions given by the different authors:

Each person has
his or her own individual way of gathering and processing information, and
solving problems in day-to-day situations. These personal cognitive abilities,
acquired through a long  process of socialization
are called “learning styles” (Reynolds, 1997). Riding (2005) assured that
students are not all the same and that individual differences influence both
their learning and their academic achievement. Knowledge of one’s learning
style can lead to enhanced learning and helps the learner focus on improving
weaker points. Learning Styles analysis is also useful for informing the
teaching and learning process and can be used as a tool to enhance achievement
and inclusion. (Rose &Nicholl, 1997).

Every individual
has its own way of perceiving and understanding information.  Some people learn by oral repetition, some by
writing it out, while others may learn through practical work. Therefore every
learner has his own learning style. The learning styles play a crucial role in
how effectively the information is stored. Each learner has different ways of
learning that depend upon many personal factors and everyone has a distinct
cognitive learning style (Montgomery, 1996; Mumford and Honey, 1996).  Learning style can be described as a set of
factors, behaviours and attitudes that simplify learning for an individual. It
is the ability of learners to understand and process information in learning
situations. It is the learner’s habitual way of acquiring and processing
information. The idea of learning styles originated in the 1970s, and has
greatly influenced education.

Learning is an episode in which a motivated individual attempts to adapt
his behaviour so as to succeed in a situation which he perceives as requiring
action to attain a goal (Pressey, Robinson and Horrocks (1967). Learning is a
lifelong process and occupies very important place in human life. Learning is
not confined to school or a particular age only rather it is a comprehensive a
term which is involved to every aspect of life at all developmental stages. It
is the basis of success for every individual.

Introduction

Key Words: Learning style,
Secondary school students

The
study was conducted to analyse preferable learning styles among secondary
school students of district Srinagar. The present study is a modest effort to
find out the effect of gender and place of Living on learning style preferences
of secondary school students. A sample of 300 secondary school students of District
Srinagar of Jammu and Kashmir was selected for the study. Learning Style
Inventory (2012) by Sreekala and Amalraj was used to collect relevant
information for the study. Findings of the study indicate that the most
preferred learning style among secondary school students is Visual (45.7%) followed by Auditory (21.0%) and
Kinaesthetic (15%) It means that most of the secondary school students favoured
visual format of learning. It was also found that the most preferred learning style among male and female
students was visual learning style. Rural, urban and semi-urban students were
found to have  no significant difference
in their learning styles.

Abstract                                                                                  

Arshid Ahmad Najar

 

 

x

Hi!
I'm Mary!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out