It Society, set up in Calcutta in 1784

It is the essential association responsible for meteorological discernments, atmosphere deciding and seismology. IMD is headquartered in Delhi and works a few discernment stations across finished India and Antarctica territorial office are at Mumbai, Kolkata, Nagpur and Pune.

IMD is similarly one of the six Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers of the World Meteorological Organization. It has the commitment in regards to assessing, naming and scattering of notification for tropical rough breezes in the Northern Indian Ocean zone, including the Malacca Straits, the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf.
In 1686, Edmond Halley distributed his work on the Indian summer rainstorm, which he ascribed to a regular reversal of winds in light of the differential warming of the Asian land mass and the Indian Ocean. The main meteorological observatories were set up in India by the British East India Company. These incorporated the Calcutta Observatory in 1785, the Madras Observatory in 1796 and the Colaba Observatory in 1826. A couple of various observatories were set up in India in the midst of the principal half of the nineteenth century by various commonplace governments.

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The Asiatic Society, set up in Calcutta in 1784 and in Bombay in 1804, propelled the investigation of meteorology in India. Henry Piddington distributed around 40 papers managing hurricanes from Calcutta in the region of 1835 and 1855 in The Journal of the Asiatic Society. He in like manner authored the term violent wind, which implies the loop of a snake. In 1842, he distributed his point of interest proposition, Laws of the Storms.

After a tropical typhoon hit Calcutta in 1864, and the ensuing femines in 1866 and 1871 as a result of the disappointment of the tempests, it was chosen to deal with the social occasion and examination of meteorological recognitions under one housetop. Hence, the India Meteorology Department was set up in 1875. Henry Francis Blanford was appointed the fundamental Meteorological Reporter of the IMD. In May 1889, Sir John Eliot was assigned the fundamental Director General of Observatories in the past capital, Calcutta. The IMD headquarters was later moved to Shimla in 1905, at that point to Pune in 1928 finally to New Delhi in 1944.

After freedom on 27 April, 1949, the association has grabbed its hugeness due to the significance of the rainstorm rains on Indian farming. It expect a fundamental part in setting up the yearly rainstorm figure, and also in following the progress of the tempest across finished India each season.

Organisation

IMD is going by the Director General of Meteorology. Dr. K. J. Ramesh is Director General of Meteorology since August 1 2016. IMD has 6 Regional Meteorological Centres, each under a Deputy Director General. These are situated in Chennai, Guwahati, Kolkata, Mumbai, Nagpur and New Delhi. There are additionally Meteorological Centres in each state capital. Other IMD units, for example, Forecasting Offices, Agrometeorological Advisory Service Centres, Flood Meteorological Offices, Area Cyclone Warning Centres and Cyclone Warning Centres are normally co-situated with different observatories or meteorological center.

IMD works a system of several surface and icy observatories, Upper Air (high height) stations, ozone and radiation observatories and meteorological radar stations. Extra information is taken from India’s constellation of satellites, for example, Kalpana-1, Megha-Tropiques and instruments on board the IRS series and the INSAT series of satellites. Data and observations are additionally detailed into the IMD network from meteorological instruments on board Indian merchant marine and Indian Navy ships. IMD was the principal association in India to send a message switching computer for supporting its globaldataexchange.

IMD works together with different offices, for example, the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting and the National Institute of Ocean Technology.

IMD additionally operates seismic monitoringcentres at key areas for tremor observing and estimations.

Tasks
IMD undertakes observations, communications, forecasting and weather administrations. In a joint effort with the Indian Space Research Organization, the IMD likewise utilizes the IRS series and the Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) for climate monitoring of the Indian subcontinent. IMD was the firstweather authority of a developing nation to create and keep up its own satellite system.

IMD is one of the 6 Worldwide Specialized Meteorological Centres of the Tropical Cyclone Program of the World Weather Watch of the World Meteorological Organization. It is regional nodal agency for forecasting, naming and disseminating notices about cyclone in the Indian Ocean north of the Equator.

IMD also launched System of Aerosol Monitoring and Research (SAMAR) in January 2016 to study the concentration of Black carbon, radiative properties of aerosols, environmental visibility and their climatological impacts. It would contain a network of 16 aethalometers, 12 sky radiometers and 12 nephelometers

IMD Services
Following are few of the services which IMD provides.

AGROMETEOROLOGY
The main objective is to minimize the impact of adverse weather on crops and to make use
of crop-weather relationships to boost agricultural production. Main services of the division
are:
• Gramin Krishi Mausam Seva
• Dissemination of Agromet Advisories
• Feedback and Awareness of Agromet Service
• Training programme to AMFUs

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SERVICE
Environment Monitoring and Research Center, a division of IMD conducts monitoring and research related to atmospheric constituents that are capable of forcing change in the climate of the Earth, and may cause depletion of the global ozone layer, and play key roles in air quality from local to global scales. The following are the main objectives:-
I. Ozone Monitoring Network
II. Precipitation and Particulate Matter Chemistry Monitoring
III. Aerosol Monitoring Network
IV. Black Carbon Monitoring Network
V. System for Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR)
HYDROMETEOROLOGY
Flood Meteorological Offices (FMOs) have been set up by IMD at ten locations viz. Agra, Ahmedabad, Asansol, Bhubaneshwar, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Jalpaiguri, Lucknow, New Delhi and Patna.
• Rainfall Monitoring
• Hydrology Project

METEOROLOGICAL TELECOMMUNICATION
Information System and Services Division (ISSD) of IMD provides support functions needed for meteorological data and processed weather products to the users, both national and international, round the clock on near real time basis and is known internationally as Regional Telecommunication Hub (RTH) under the aegis of WHO.
The Meteorological Telecommunication in IMD consists of an integrated network of point-to-point and point to multipoint links and meteorological centres within the country and the world for receiving data and replay it selectively.

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