It is almost more than twenty years ago; Deaton (2014) stated that whether or not we touch a computer, it is almost impossible to escape their daily influence on us; from speedy information transmittal, printouts, and receipts , to control of lights and temperature of our work places; (AlMujaini 29 , 2006). Today, we have a term; Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which has gained popularity recent years. It encompasses the effective use of equipment and programs to access information, and store, organize, manipulate and present it (Gay & Blades, 2005).
It is reported by Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS, 2002) those in recent years ICT, and is continuing to have, an increasingly significant impact on all aspects of society.
In her report to the UNESCO in 2003, Tinio cited the lack of ICT based-instructional materials that will aid teachers in using ICTs as teaching and learning tools as one of the constraints, among others, to the effective integration of ICT in basic education. Other factors include: poor student to computer ratios (averaging 267:1); lack of appropriate/relevant software; lack of connectivity; low level of basic ICT skills among teachers; and lack of funds to pay for the cost of running the ICT facilities. To remedy these deficiencies, the Department of Education has undertaken specific programs for the next few years on the effective and efficient implementation of ICT in basic educational system.
The size of the school is a great factor on the availability of computer hardware and software resources. This shows that for small schools, hardware resources such as overhead projector, Handheld/PDA, laser printer, powder printer and devices for digital imaging and video processing were not available while desktop computers were very available. However, availability of computer Hardware resources for medium schools such as overhead projector, handheld/PDA and devices for digital imaging and video processing were also not available while television, VCD/DVD player, cassette, radio, video/digital camera, laptop, desktop, and inkjet printer were moderately available. On the other hand, LCD projector, tablet pc, android and mobile phone, scanner, DVD writer and all types of printer got somewhat available.
In general, availability of computer hardware resources among small and medium schools in Public Secondary in District II was perceived as somewhat available. This implies that there are insufficient hardware resources among small and medium schools while the large school utilizes various ICT hardware resources for various task and applications in teaching.
The availability of software resources came out with Moderately Available and is not a determinant in most schools. For small schools, spreadsheet, presentation and email software got the highest availability which is very available, while word processing, graphics, chatting platform, database, encyclopedia references, recreation and educational games, photo editing and web design software got the next rank which is moderately available.
According to the study, provisions of ICT equipment/facilities in terms of availability of computer hardware and software resources can be described as somewhat available. This implies that there are inadequate or no enough resources or ICT facilities among the three types of schools that can be used for various task and applications in teaching.
Adequate computers for students used are enough to sustain the ideal period of time in using the computers and that Grade 7 subjects in public secondary schools in EDDIS II are meeting the standards when it comes to student-computer ratio.
Investment on internet connectivity among secondary schools must also be prioritize which commonly has no enough funds to sustain internet connections as part of ICT utilization. The extent of ICT utilization in teaching for both hardware and software requirements was to a moderate extent.
Teacher should be acquainted with the use ICT facilities/equipment and upgrade their level on Technology resources. The level of students ‘academic performance in Math, Science and English are all within proficiency level ranging from 87.18% to 89.80% since majority of them obtained a very satisfactory grades. The extent of ICT utilization in teaching has no significant effect or no influence on students’ academic performance for Math, Science and English subject. Likewise, it did not serve as significant predictor. An Enhance ICT Program was evolved from the findings of the study to further improve utilization of Information and Communication Technology resources and will benefit Public Secondary Schools in DepEd Division of Bulacan.
Secondary Education is a decisive stage, however; learning and studying at this age has the most potential impact on forming new members of the knowledge community. It signalls that school institutions face the need to become “Learning Organizations”. The most specific effect of new ICT facilities is a catalytic one – not only in the continuous evolution of the innovative teaching/learning processes in traditional Secondary Education. Even more important are the ICT effects on contextual factors like the restructuring of classroom-based learning and its complement to home-based learning, vocational training and most important the new-coming Web-based Learning Networks and its subsequent Web-based Learning Communities. Most likely is the introduction of Web-based Communities for Teachers. As teachers are in many cases the top experts in local school settings, it seems an attractive option to let them refresh and operationalize the content expertise and didactic methods via participation in the larger Web-based Teacher Communities.
The combination of ICT infrastructures and software facilities in schools and the participation in Learning Networks is expected to be the critical factor in a longer-term sustainable innovation in Education. The first-order effect is the change in teacher roles, once information access becomes widely available. The second feature is the new learning environment in school that allows learners to participate in distributed learning communities. Resulting from this synergy will be an ongoing process where teachers and students work together, partly face-to- face in the same physical location, partly in the virtual learning communities. ICT impact on Secondary Education should not be limited to the innovation of didactical measures, but it should also lead toward the internal development of Educational Institutions as “Learning Organizations.” Its main self-transformation will be the accommodation of students’ learning in Web- based Communities inside and outside traditional schooling institutes.
Akpabio (2004), reported that ICT includes technologies and methods for storing, managing and processing information as well as communicating information.
Adesope and Adebayo (2007) explained further that the introduction of ICT usage integration and diffusion has ushered a new age in educational methodologies. Thus, it has radically changed traditional method of information delivery and usage patterns in the domain as well as offering contemporary learning experience for both instructors and students. For developing countries, ICT has potentials for increasing access to and improving the relevance and quality of education. It has represented a potential equalizing strategy for developing countries. ICT has greatly facilitated the acquisition and absorption of knowledge, offering developing countries unprecedented opportunities to enhance educational system.
Education is a dynamic process which can be achieved through innovations. The introduction of the use of information and communication technology for teaching and learning in schools has been a great innovation; but in Nigeria, the use of ICT in the school system in teaching and learning has not been fully actualized. This work examined the extent of utilization of information and communication technology tools for teaching and learning basic sciences and vocational agricultural science in secondary schools. The study revealed that computer and over-head projectors are used in teaching and learning of basic sciences and vocational agriculture in secondary schools but the use of internet for teaching and learning in secondary schools has not been actualized especially in the area of the study and this is a challenge to the school proprietors and managers.
Another study showed that information and communications Technology resources were not available in the secondary schools in Ardo-kola and Jalingo. This makes them to lag behind in the utilization of ICT resources in teaching-learning process. The scenario was also responsible for the very poor extent of accessibility rating of all ICT resources as availability leads to accessibility.
Numerous were the perceived challenges facing the utilization of ICTs in teaching-learning process. They include; poor electric power supply, lack of knowledgeable ICT support staff, inadequacy of trained teachers in the use of lCTs, insufficient funds, high cost of ICT equipment, materials and accessories, government’s payment of lip service to implementation of ICT policies, inadequate telephone services, inability to replace broken down equipment and facilities and lack for ICT equipment. There is no doubt that teachers and students in Ardo-Kola and Jalingo will have numerous amount of learning resources at their disposal if government lives up to its expectation in the implementation of her ICT policies.
In order to fit in to the new technology driven era, Nigerian schools and individuals should as a matter of necessity develop a culture that places high premium on information and communication technology.
Information and communication technology according to Ochoyi and Ukwumonu (2008) has the capacity to produce higher interactive potentials for users to develop individual intellectual and creative ability. It is as a result of the great advantages which ICT offers that Nigerian educational reforms stressed the importance of computer technology in Schools during the 32 ministerial council meeting of the National Council on Education in 1987 (FRN,2004). The role of 1CT in the advancement of knowledge and skills necessary for the effective functioning of an individual in the modern world was further stressed in the National policy on education. In the bid to integrate ICT into education in Nigeria for effective teaching and learning to take place, internet services in schools tagged school Net Nigeria was launched in September 2001.
Integration of ICT in teaching at this level invariably will give rise to new instructional techniques. This makes the students to engage themselves in individualized learning. A situation that gives them access to tools that adjusts to their attention span and provides valuable and immediate feedback to literacy enhancement, which is currently not fully implemented in the Nigerian school system (Enuku, and Enuku, 1999 & 2000)
The researchers therefore make the following recommendations.?The following recommendations are therefore made. The government should increase funding for the entire educational sector with emphasis on ICT; this will help improve the level of ICT facilities in the schools. There should also be continuous and periodic training of teachers on computer and ICT skills acquisition. This will help provide them with practical and functional knowledge needed for their day to day interaction with students in the classroom.
http://jsshr.anveshika.org/article/extent-of-information-and-communication-technology-utilization-in-teaching-its-influence-on-students-academic-performance/http://www.ijset.net/journal/703.pdf https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JPID/article/view/19293 HYPERLINK “http://iite.unesco.org/pics/publications/en/files/3214616.pdf”