It brain cognition, concentration, productivity, and overall performance.

 It is recommended that schools should start later than 8:30 am by the American Academy Pediatrics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Medical Association, yet over 82% of schools have a start time earlier than the suggested hour. The early start of schools, specifically middle schools, continue to play a negative effect on students’ physical, behavior, and mental state. Clearly, FCPS middle schools should start at a later time because it will improve performance in school, significantly reduce stress, and minimize sleep deprivation.One important reason to start middle schools later is that it will improve performance in school. With middle schools starting at a later hour, students will become more attentive, willing and have a better mood, and have a better memory. On that account, those who are attentive perform well in school. However, the lack of sleep due to the FCPS middle school start times causes youths to be overtired and constantly falling asleep in class. In fact, melatonin levels in adolescents continue to send sleep signals during the early hours of 7:00 am. Consequently, throughout the start of school, students are inattentive. Therefore, getting enough sleep will strikingly benefit brain cognition, concentration, productivity, and overall performance. Research showed that people with inadequate sleep were considerably worse at solving simple logic and math questions than when they received plentiful sleep. On top of that, better mood and willingness in students will also be expressed when middle schools have a later start time. When schools had a delayed start time, there was reduced tardiness, sleeping during class, and accident rates. Moreover, there was not only improved attendance but better test scores and graduation rates as well. Lack of sleep also affects emotional regulation. “When you’re overtired, you’re more likely to snap at your boss, or burst into tears, or start laughing uncontrollably,” says Mindell to WebMD. Additionally, teens will also have a better memory if FCPS middle schools change their start times, resulting in better academic performance. During sleep, the brain processes information and memories from the day, shown by multiple studies. For that reason, people who are sleep-deprived may have incorrectly stored memories and may be noticeably forgetful. Research also says that sleep deprivation can cause the development of false memories. For example, in several experiments, people examined a set of words and were later tested based on what they remembered. Those who did not sleep in the course of the break were more likely to remember a word not listed in their set.Middle schools should also start later due to the fact that it will significantly reduce stress. Stress has a multitude of harmful effects on the mood, behavior, and body of teens. It may cause anxiety, restlessness, frustration, lack of motivation, poor focus, the feeling of being overwhelmed, irritability, and even depression. Furthermore, they may experience even more effects of the early start time such as weight fluctuation, outbursts, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, social withdrawal, and sparse exercise. How is it possible for students to efficiently learn when undergoing these repercussions? Likewise, stress messes with the body, resulting in headaches, muscle tension and pain, chest pain, tiredness, and stomach aches. In some cases, stress hormones can cause problems in both the respiratory and cardiovascular system. When people are stressed, the muscles that help them breathe tense up, leaving them short of breath. Not only that, stressful situations can also cause heartburn and heart attacks, due to the fact that it increases the production of stomach acid, heart rate, and blood pressure, possibly inflicting damage to the arteries. Stress hormones can also lead to a weakened immune system, concluding vulnerability to various illnesses. It causes the liver to increase the release of the sugar glucose into the bloodstream, resulting in high blood sugar and type 2 diabetes over time. In addition to reducing stress, a later start for middle schools will minimize sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation can cause an increased risk of injury, poor weight control, and vulnerability to various illnesses. In truth, many disasters are caused by lack of sleep. This includes numerous incidents, such as the destruction of the Challenger space shuttle and Exxon Valdez, all linked to insufficient sleep. People with sleep loss tend to “drive drowsy”. The Institute of Medicine approximated that ? of auto accidents in the U.S. were effects due to drowsy driving. Moreover, overtired people have behavioral problems as well, for they don’t feel up to exercising or getting up to cook a healthy meal that day, resulting in weight fluctuation and even obesity. In fact, poor sleep is one of the strongest risk factors for obesity. Sleep loss causes psychological problems, leading up to poor weight control. When one lacks sleep, leptin, a hormone that makes someone feel full, levels decrease. Therefore, overtired people tend to be ravenous and seem to yearn for foods high in fat and calories. Sleep deprivation is also associated with memory loss, weight fluctuation, heart disease, hypertension, suicidal thoughts, stroke, obesity, mood disorders, weak immune system, high blood pressure, and increased chance of diabetes. Teens who sleep after midnight increases their chance of suffering from depression by 24% than those who sleep before 10, based on a 2010 study. Additionally, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine states that teens need at least nine hours of sleep each night, and about 87% of adolescents in America don’t get the recommended amount of sleep.


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