Issue: Protecting the future of the European Union bycombating the rise of EuroscepticismForum:European CouncilPosition: Presidentand Deputy President Name: ArasAgaik and Teresa Peregrina Alba Introduction The European Union is facing avery important crisis that threatens the mere existence of itself. As a resultof this crisis, many have come to question the capability of the European Unionto pursue its designated goals and its long-standing vision of full or advancedintegration. The EU’s failure to succeed in achieving these designated goalsshould come as no question in the midst of local power struggles in almostevery single member state. In almost every single member state, with severalexceptions, there is a rising sentiment on which anti-establishment partieshave been able to tap.
This rising sentiment of European antipathy has beenexploited by political outsiders to an unprecedented degree. We’re talkingabout a level of fragility at which the member state with the largest economy ispushed to leave the Union. Such a widespread trend causes the pro-EU rulingparties to adopt policies that are intended to appease the sceptical portion ofthe population. Ignoring the concerns and questions raised by Euro sceptics waspossible, right until they started to show up in the polls. In Germany, the AFDhas recently entered the Bundestag.
For the majority of the Dutch presidentialcampaign, the far-right Eurosceptic Geert Wilders was tipped to win theelection. It comes as no surprisethat the Liberal president of theNetherlands switched to a rather rightwing message with anti-immigrant undertones. The immediate problem facing theEU and its member states, therefore, is the shifting of the spectrum towardsright in many social issues, making the so-called “soft Eurosceptics” the new norm. The EU’s response to Brexit was tochange legislative trajectory, accelerating the process of fullintegration, the exact reason why manyof the anti-establishment parties would like to leave the EU. If the EuropeanCommission and the European Union leadership stay on this track, the dividewill only get worse and the widespread concerns as a result of which Euroscepticismcame to exist will exacerbate. Another important issue that is usually avoidedin discussing Euroscepticism is the overall dissatisfaction the regularEuropean feels towards the EU. In the UK, UKIP appeared to be the only majorEurosceptic political party. This was not enough to convince the British tovote against leaving the EU,against a campaign lead by the same person who leads UKIP.
Generaldissatisfaction cannot always be tracked through the popularity ofanti-establishment political parties. In order for the European Union toachieve its vision of integration until 2025, the questions raised regardingthe transparency and intentions of the EU should be answered. The leadership ofEU is a big blur in the minds of the majority of the Europeans and its leadingbodies consisting of unelected bureaucrats appear to be elitist in nature or otherwise.The public opinion regarding theEuropean Union usually corresponds to the overall state of the nationaleconomy. Economy’s ties to the sentiment regarding EU can never be overstated,and thus should be recognized as an important determinant of how many policieswill be perceived. The existing EU policies areusually credited in the caseof economic development and vice versa.
Communicating the role of the EU invarious developments and managing the public image that appears to be mostlyabandoned is the first step towards a sustainable policy pursuit and a healthypublic opinion trend. The focus should be on the fact that, without a doubt,every single policy adopted by the EU is intended to benefit each European inthe long term. In convincing the Europeans that a person living in Bordeaux isnot prioritized in comparison to a person living in Prague, a common identityhas to be preserved and the Eastern parts of the Eurozone are particularlyconcerned regarding the consideration of them as equals of Western Europeans.As a result, a group of people who are socially insecure of their position in apotentially integrated EU and a group of people who tend to view their nationaland personal interests irreconcilable with those of the EU havelead to the state in which we find ourselves.
Definition of Key Terms Soft Euroscepticism Supporters of soft Eurosceptism(also called Euro sceptics) are mostly people who have an ambiguousinterpretation of the majority of European Union policies, but are against asmall number of major policy points. This branch of Euroscepticism has been atarget of many hard Eurosceptics, who believe that it is not arealistic viewpoint. The reason mostly cited for this claim of naivete is thefact that unanimous voting is required for a change in a certain policy, andleaving the EU is, therefore, claimed to be the only way through which a newpolicy prioritizing the national interest can be adopted. Hard Euroscepticism Hard Eurosceptics are of the opinion that theUnion entirely is run for the interest of a so-called elite and that none ofthe major policies are intended to benefit the common European citizen. Thedescription of the EU as the vision of a small-number of bureaucrats and anunidentified elite has been successful in popularizing certain aforementionedparties. The arguments that are used against the European Commission and its so-calledanti-democratic structure usually leads to the dismissal of every singlediscussion or major policy shift in the EU.
Maastricht Treaty: The Maastricht Treaty, formally, theTreaty on European Union or TEU), was the first significant and elaborateattempt to initiate integration in Europe. It was signed on 7 February 1992 bythe members. On 9–10 December 1991, the European Council drafted the treaty inthe same city. On 1 November 1993, the treaty became it created the threepillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the singleEuropean currency, the Euro. Islamophobia: Islamophobia is an intense fear orhatred of, or prejudice against, Islamic as religion or Muslims. The MiddleEastern region and the common problems that occur in the area lead to dangerousgeneralizations regarding Islam and Muslims.
This false equivalency directlycorrelates to the characterization of Muslims as a source of terrorism. Thosewho are publicly depicted as Islamophobes challenge this label by arguing thata fear of Muslims is rational, and therefore cannot be depicted as a “phobia” inits traditional meaning. Open Borders: In the EU and countries that areofficially admitted to the Eurozone, border control is deliberatelyinsubstantial, in order to achieve the ultimate goal of free of peoples betweendifferent jurisdictional areas.
Free Market: In an idealized free market economy, thegoverning forces of the market, the supply and demand, determine prices.Government intervention is non-existent and the market manages to sustainperfect competition with the help of the so called Invisible Hand. Pan-EuropeanIdentity: Pan-European identity is described as acertain sense of personal identification with Europe. This identification couldbe based on a cultural, racial or political sense. The concept has been a topicof intense discussion in the context of European Integration, Since theestablishment of the European Union (EU) in the 1990s, discussion have taken arather strategic turn to analyze the project of federalization of the EU. Multispeed Community Multispeed Community can be defined asthe ideology of the differentiation of Member states within the European Unionthat should integrate following different procedures according to the politicalsituations in these member states as individuals. General Overview History Euroscepticism originates from twobranches of nationalism dimensions: ideological and sociological.
Sociologically, nationalism pertains in distinct forms that represent asuccinct structure of processes, that have lead towards the coincident ofMember states and the boundaries of nations. Social scientists presume that themodern world is composed of a central feature of which being nationalism.Eurosceptics are able to withdraw from the thesis of sociological a commonsupport, due to the ideology of multinational polity within the EU beingsuggested. People tend to move to the ideology ofEuroscepticism regularly, according to the experts of public opinion in Europe,this is a frequent process.
Moreover, the support of European integration islinked with the economic cycle: the citizens agree with the integration whenthere is economic bonanza, and convert to eurosceptics when in economic crisis.This is a concept which embarks on threedimensions; the first being a process of change: since it has evolvedthroughout the same time as the ideology of integration, more specifically withwith the creation of Benelux (which included Belgium, the Netherlands andLuxembourg). This agreement between the Member states allowed to have a customunion. The opposition of Euroscepticism during this time was low, in comparisonto how it is now in the present.
With time, the ideology of euroscepticismmoves accordingly. An aspect of euroceptism, is that itdoes not belong to a particular social group, such as the differencing ofpolitical groups; another aspect woudl be that euroscepticism presents aspectrum, from the perspective of left-wing to the right-wing. According to analysts the rise ofEuroscepticism originates from the United Kingdom, in particular from the creationof newspaper reports throughout the 1980s, the first usage of this term waspresent in The Times, which had been dedicated to then Prime Minister MargaretThatcher, of the United Kingdom. Analysts confirm the origin of the concept “Euroceptism”is from news media, more than from the branch of political science. This termhas evolved being used in the Maastricht Treaty during the 1990’s. Since the 1990s and in continuation, theidentity and extent of the attitude within euroscepticism has dramaticallyevolved, this has caused a rise in integration conceptions, that allowed theportrayal of the European Union asmultispeed community.During the decades 1970-1980 theideology of euroscepticism was present in left-wing political parties, theythought the European Union could weaken the national politics of well-being.
Inthe 1990s the right-wing political parties were eurosceptic, since the votersof these parties had thought that the EU had in mind defending the globalclimate change, labour union and diverse production of workers, against thecommotion of interest from businessmen. Citizens of the member states withinEurope, had thought of the creation of the European Union with an ideology offavorability to this Union.A consensus was held at the beginningconcerning political parties that the integration of Europe should have to beimpulsed, and there was as a large confidence in the governmental elites. Throughout the years, and with theexpansion of member states in the European Union, this led to a rise incommutative competences and for the integration of individuals to begin havingdifficulties, such as gaining support from citizens in referendums andelections on European issues. Current problems The attitude towards the integration wasdisfavorable, this reached a high point with the amplification of easternEurope becoming part of the EU, and with the increment of 12 new member stateswithin this union throughout 2004 to 2007.
Nowadays, the ideology of integrationis difficult within the radical parties from both parts of the spectrum. Theradical left-wing parties consider this a capitalist project, however theradical right-wing parties oppose to integration to defend the nationalsovereignty of Member state (as for example the rising level of immigrantswithin particular countries). Furthermore, euroscepticism is found throughoutthe outbreaking of financial crises and is identified as a conjunction amongprotest and a large amount of Euroscepticism, elite euroscepticism and europeanleaders with the provision of an anti-referendum attitude. Major Parties Involved United Kingdom The United Kingdom is the major countryconcerning Euroscepticism, this has been since the European Economic Community(EEC) was incepted. The division between the public community, politicalparties and media was realised by the European Union. The ideology of leaving of the EuropeanUnion, since the inception, was backed up by the Independence Party of theUnited Kingdom. During the referendum ofUnited Kingdom European Union membership, the issue did not allow the prestigeof the Conservatives on having an official position, however party leader DavidCameron, was still in favour of being part of the European Union; this issuecaused the party to be divided. The Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats hadwanted the UK to remain in the European Union, although the leader of theLabour Party had stated that a withdrawal was taken into consideration.
The referendum had the majority of thevotes in favour of leaving the EU of 51.9%, in comparison with remaining inthis union of 48.1%, this authorised for Brexit to take place. The UnitedKingdom informed the European Council of its intended abandonment bystimulating Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty. Greece Greece has a position of being thesecond most Eurosceptic Member state within the European Union, havingpolitical parties of Communist Party of Greece (KKE), Course of Freedomrepresenting the left-wing and Golden Dawn and LAOS representing right-wing ofthe political spectrum, among other parties involved. Further, 50% of greeksbelieve that their country has not benefited by the unification of the EU, 33%of the population perceive this membership as useful; though a total of 81%state that the European Union is headed towards an incorrect direction. Since2009, these figures give a clear representation of the increment of theideology of Euroscepticisim within Greece.
In 2014, in the European Parliamentelection had been won by the political party of Syriza, having majority votesby 26.58%. The leader Tsipras, has stated that he does not have the intentionon leaving the European Union, as he is not anti-European. Furthermore, he iswilling to collaborate with the EU partners of Greece, it is believed that theencouragement of radical left parties could take place with the victory ofSyriza. The leader has taken into promise, for several of the austeritymeasures used in Greece to be cancelled, opposing the Eurogroup’s position. Greece is currently composed of agovernment coalition between Syriza and ANEL (being a led by a Eurospecticright-wing party, more specifically the current Minister of Defence, PanosKammenos). The Netherlands Originally The Netherlands, being one ofthe members that founded the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952, andpromoting the joining of the United Kingdom in 1970 among others into theCommunity. In the early 2000s,The Netherlands became more Eurosceptic, furtherthe European Constitution was rejected in 2005 and complaints were realisedconcerning the high investment of finance into the Union or for a democraticdeficit to take place.
The Party for Freedom seeks for the abandonment of theEU, this is due to their ideology of the European Union being undemocratic, thecapital cost and immigrants being allowed in freely. France France has different levels ofEuroscepticism, that offer a range from promoting lesser intervention of theEuropean Union upon national affairs, to promoting total withdrawal for theEurozone and the EU. Though the arguments concerning Eurosceptisicm differsupon the parties on the political spectrum. Far right-wing parties are opposedto the EU as they argue that the political loss and economic sovereignty ofFrance in an entity being supranational. Far eft-wing parties criticise abouttheir assumption upon the European Union’s neoliberal agenda, the structure ofthis union and its elements which can be viewed as undemocratic. Timeline of Key Events when Event September 5th 1944 The Benelux Customs Unions treaty was signed by Luxembourg, The Netherlands and Belgium. 18th April 1951 The Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community was signed among countries; France, Germany, Belgium, Italy and Luxembourg. It was produced for the states to be bonded together economically.
March 25 1957 The Treaty of Rome was signed, this allowed for a common market of employment, capital and goods and services between the countries of: France, Germany, The Netherlands and Luxembourg. February 3 1958 Treaty Benelux Economic Union was signed. November 1 1960 Benelux terminated, due to the its replacement of Benelux Economic Union August 13 1961 The Berlin wall was constructed, in which divided the eastern to the western part of Berlin. Communication between these two sectors was not possible. November 9 1989 The government of East Berlin announces that the Berlin Wall will come to an end, after 50 years of separation between the two states. This symbolised the ending of the Cold War.
November 1 1993 The European Union was formed, including primarily 28 Member states January 1 1999 The currency of the Euro was launched across the European Union, though Member states, United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark; although 18 Member states use this currency. 23 June 2016 A referendum was held in the United Kingdom concerning Brexit. The overwhelming majority voted to leave the European Union. 29 March 2019 United Kingdom will officially leave the European Union Previous attempts to resolve the issue In the previous years, Euroscepticism was mostly discussed in termsof potential future members. Over the course of a lengthy and tough admissionevaluation process, the societal fundamentals in Europe in Turkey were subjectto many speculations and some carefully conducted research. In Turkey, manyEurosceptics (mostly of right wing ideology) advocated against the admissionwhilst Euroscpetics in Poland and the UK used Turkey’s potential admission as alegitimate reason for trying to leave EU.
In order to resolve this anti-EUsentiment in various cultures and communities, the European Council on ForeignRelations and the European Council itself conducted research. Donald Tusk, headof the European Commission, cited Euroscepticism as one of the most importantinternal security threats due to the emergence of various factions. The regular Eurobarometer, organised andregulated by the European Commission to keep track of the major public opiniontrends in member states, has recorded increases in anti-EU sentiment and thesechanges have been subjected to more and more interpretation and used to informpolicy decisions.
In recognizing the prejudices againstthe European Union as a body formed by various institutions, EU leaders havetried to adopt to a transparent form of decision-making, a series ofinitiatives that have been deemed unsuccessful by those who were prejudiced inadvance. Possible Solutions The protection of the European Union canbe solved through effective solutions that combat of the rise ofEuroscepticism. The main challenge that is currently being faced is to opengaps between eurocepstics instead of encouraging the formation of a blocanti-elite.
To achieve this, the main centre-right and centre-left parties willhave to conduct more activity to recognise the criticism of Europe concerningEurosceptics, and the solutions proposed by the Eurosceptics to be rejected.Europeans are upset due to the EU not functioning as they would have liked itto, whether it is to be held responsible for austerity, or the unmanageableimmigration. The Euro has been managed to be saved, but this has been realisedat a the high cost, through means of employment, growth and the divisionsbetween elites and citizens. Member states within the European Union should payattention to the new divisions that emerged during the crisis, such as betweendebtors and creditors and euro-ins and euro-outs. Europe necessitates morepolicies that will help defeat the Eurosceptics.
Instead of remaining united,main parties must offer options to individuals and for them to be addressedwith the issues in which show concern for. The social aspect on the inevitabilityof the nation state within the modern world evaluates three options ofEurophiles: one for the statement to be rejected, two for the lesser importancethat it should receive (this European project is meant to have taken the formof utopian), and thirdly for the acceptance of this to take place. Theseoptions available may seem against the European project and the dispute ofpro-nation within Europe. It is believed that the nation-state development isin further progress by the creation of another stage.
Through the means of;spreading a lingua franca within the EU, for a culture of transitional youth toemerge, business practices to be converged and the practices of theconstitution Europe to be adopted and widespread (the formation of aconstitution could as well help).These are the major steps that need to betaken in order for a unity of the European Union to surge. Appendix/Appendices • https://www.
pdf Bibliography Coman, Julian. “EU Timeline: from Destruction toSteelmaking … to Meltdown.” The Observer,Guardian News and Media, 10 May 2014, www.
theguardian.com/world/2014/may/10/timeline-europe-eu-elections. “The Roots of Euroscepticism.
” The Economist, The Economist Newspaper, 12Mar. 2016, www.economist.com/news/britain/21694557-why-britons-are-warier-other-europeans-eu-roots-euroscepticism. Euroscepticism – Google Search,www.