Israel’s legal system combines three legal traditions:English common law, civil law, and Jewish law.6 It is based on the principleof stare decisis (precedent) and is an adversarial system, where the parties inthe suit bring evidence before the court. Court cases are decided byprofessional judges rather than juries.354 Marriage and divorce are under thejurisdiction of the religious courts: Jewish, Muslim, Druze, and Christian.
Theelection of judges is carried out by a committee of two Knesset members, threeSupreme Court justices, two Israeli Bar members and two ministers (one ofwhich, Israel’s justice minister, is the committee’s chairman). The committee’smembers of the Knesset are secretly elected by the Knesset, and one of them istraditionally a member of the opposition, the committee’s Supreme Courtjustices are chosen by tradition from all Supreme Court justices by seniority,the Israeli Bar members are elected by the bar, and the second minister isappointed by the Israeli cabinet. The current justice minister and committee’schairwoman is Ayelet ShakedIn 1967, as a result of the Six-Day War, Israel captured andoccupied the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip and the GolanHeights. Israel also captured the Sinai Peninsula, but returned it to Egypt aspart of the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.361 Between 1982 and 2000, Israeloccupied part of southern Lebanon, in what was known as the Security Belt.Since Israel’s capture of these territories, Israeli settlements and militaryinstallations have been built within each of them, except Lebanon. Israel hasapplied civilian law to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem and granted theirinhabitants permanent residency status and the ability to apply forcitizenship. The West Bank, outside of the Israeli settlements within theterritory, has remained under direct military rule, and Palestinians in thisarea cannot become Israeli citizens.
Israel withdrew its military forces anddismantled the Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip as part of itsdisengagement from Gaza though it continues to maintain control of its airspaceand waters.