IRON 1. Consult your doctor before taking any

A condition characterized by a decreased level of iron in the blood2.
Treating Iron Deficiency
Anaemia (2)(4)
1. Consult your doctor before taking any medications.
2. Consume iron tablets as prescribed by the doctor.
3. Iron injected through blood vessels into the body.
4. Blood transfusion
5. Include iron-rich food along with vitamin C in daily meals to help with the absorption of iron.
6. Drink less coffee, tea (black tea), milk.
7. Eat fewer dairy products and food that prevent absorption of iron(whole grain cereals).

Other Types of Anaemia(1):
Anaemia due to:
1. Insufficiency of vitamin B12
2. Pregnancy
3. Bone marrow failure which cannot produce RBCs effectively.
4. Breakdown of RBCs
5. Other diseases (e.g. kidney disorders)

Prevention is always better than cure(2)
A healthy diet with a good source of iron and vitamin C.
For pregnant ladies, request for a discontinuation of umbilical cord some time after delivery to avoid iron deficiency anaemia of the infant.

Iron Deficiency Anaemia is caused by(2):
1. Blood loss due to periods & childbirth
2. Inadequate daily iron intake
3. Improper iron absorption into the body
4. Kidney failure

Risk Factors(2)(3):
Young women have a higher risk than male, especially those who are having periods and are pregnant.
1 in 5 females suffers from iron deficiency anaemia.
Children (6 months to 2 years)
Elderly (>65 years)
A family history of anaemia can increase an individual’s risk of getting iron deficiency anaemia.
Vegetarians / vegans
Active blood donor
Athletes especially those with endurance training

Signs ; Symptoms(3):
Tired ; weak
Short of breath when exercising and upon exertion
Chest pain
A desire for substances that aren’t considered as food (dust, dirt,…)
A tendency to move legs at rest (Restless Legs Syndrome)
Brittle nails
Smooth tongue
Dry skin
Lip cracks

Diagnosing a patient(2)…
Different blood tests will be taken to screen for:
Þ RBCs level in the blood
Þ Iron level in the blood
Þ The concentration of iron-storing protein (ferritin) in the blood
Þ Concentration of iron transport protein (transferrin)

For further information, please click on the links in the references below:
1. American Society of Hematology. Anemia. 2018 cited 9/11/18. Available from:
2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Iron-Deficiency Anemia. N.d. cited 4/11/18; Available from:
3. UpToDate. Causes and diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in adults. 2018 cited 9/11/18; Available from:
4. NHS. Iron deficiency anaemia. 2018 cited 4/11/18; Available from:
5. Cooper J (2017). Iron deficiency anaemia… Why iron supplementation isn’t the answer and why 1 in 5 have stored iron overload causing tissue damage and early aging Online image. Retrieved November 11, 2018 from


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