INTRODUCTIONIn the RC dyno test hopefully will

INTRODUCTIONIn recent years, the trend of radio control (RC) car racing flourishes, increasing the need for professional servicing and maintenance. This of course, leads to dyno tuning. The fact that RC racing is already internationally acknowledged by the establishment of IFMAR, FEMCA, ROAR and others further raise the popularity and need for the development of RC car dyno tuning 1-3. As radio controlled vehicle tuning turns more and more important, it raises a concern that there is still no current initiative that provides a collective solution for the issue.Radio controlled devices are operated remotely by radio or infrared 4 such as cars, trucks, buggies, boats, planes and even helicopters. Although the field of remote control products has been around for decades, its technology hasn’t been through a stage of advanced breakthrough, let alone the supporting equipment and systems. The existence of the products is not fully utilized as not much testing or tuning devices can be reached easily to analyze their performance. In the recent Malaysian market, RC equipment and servicing tools like the dyno testing unit are mostly imported and resold in the country. This implies that there is currently no safety standard and regulations complying dyno testing labs fabricated in Malaysia that works for professional RC cars. Marketed tuning products are too bulky, expensive and complicated for handling. Thus this study aims to design and develop a compact RC car dyno testing with data interpreting software as well as ensuring a safe and stable dyno testing environment. The fully functioning RC dyno test will be specifically designed for professional circuit gas-fueled, 1/8 scale remote control race cars with two interchangeable gears. With the addition of an integrated software, an analysis concerning the condition of the RC race car will also be provided.The development of the RC dyno test hopefully will spearhead an influx of RC servicing and maintenance in the Malaysian RC market another step higher, also encouraging people to gain interest in this field with the easier access of available testing systems.LITERATURE REVIEWDynamometer has been the utmost choice for engine tuning for a while now. A dynamometer is a device for measuring force, torque, or power. The power produced by engine or motor can be calculated simultaneously by sensing of torque and rotational speed 5. It is used extensively in design and testing of the variable frequency drives. They consist of a motor-generator set and the necessary converter controls on the generator to achieve variable load conditions for the drive under test (DUT) 6. Typical dynamometer uses include among others; brake testers, in-service tuning, ECU remapping, end-of-line production testing, emissions certification/testing installations, mileage accumulation facilities associated with emission testing laboratories, anechoic and NVH and EMC test chambers, chassis dynamometers within climatic chambers and wind tunnels and independent wheel dynamometers 7.  Earlier researches were focused on the basic parameters often tested for a dynamometer such as speed drives, improve in design and expanding control algorithms 8-11. They measured the speed drive, torque and loading conditions. With the emergence of sustainable development, a lot of research has been done on the variations of emissions produced by commercial vehicles, either diesel or gasoline within specific parameters 12-15, either through chassis dynamometer or on road measurement. Subsequently it set precedent to the assessment on airborne wear particles emitted from car brake materials in various types of modern transportation 14, 16, 17. The relationship between wear particles in the atmosphere and the human respiratory system was evaluated, as well as finding quantitative relationships between their physical properties. Dynamometers are then further extrapolated to study battery performance and its limitation in electric cars, hybrid electric scooter, hydrogen powered car; in short all types and manners of vehicles available 18-21. It is particularly important as new technologies are developed on a regular basis for a better mode of transportation. But the most prolific use is of course performance testing by dyno tuning. Numerous analysis on the capabilities of locomotive engine, hybrid electric car, fuel cell vehicles, etc. shows that the application of dynamometer is vast and endless in the automotive industry  22-25. For example, dynamometer is also used in conjunction with analysis on conventional and alternative fuel in commercial passenger cars 26.  One niche area is sound quality analysis, where it scrutinizes the booming noise heard every day in a passenger car which directly related to engine rotation and firing 27.However, none of these studies emphasizes on performance testing for small scaled vehicles, to be exact pertaining to the RC model industry which has been around for over 50 years. At present the number of research on this matter is relatively pitiful and in dire need of attention. Having said that there were dedicated attempts to study conventional motorcycles and scooters versus the newer hybrid electric ones in terms of their performance and emissions 28-31 but that was as small as it goes. An attempt to develop a high precision dynamometer for small motor measurements, having speeds less than 7200 rpm and power output less than 50 watts was introduced 32. Years back an improved design was built primarily for the testing of servo motors too small to be tested by usual methods 33. Consecutively the performance of a planar magnetic VR micromotor was assessed by an electromagnetic micro dynamometer in order to apply rotational micromotors to practical mechanical actuation tasks 34. With the advancement of technology there was a considerable effort to diversify dynamometer by utilizing it for small unmanned aerial vehicle by the likes of a quadrotor helicopter UAV 35. But still, no advancement in the RC cars field.Most of these researches have one thing in common, a dynamometer is used to simulate and analyse real driving condition but in a controlled environment for life sized vehicles. The vehicles range from conventional fossil fuel based to state of the art hybrid or fuel cell application. These can be applied to RC cars since they come both in electric and nitro types. Electric having only to use battery while nitro use a specialised blend of fuel used only in RC cars 36. As with its bigger counterpart, the possibilities are endless. But most importantly the dynamometer has to be scaled down as RC car enthusiasts typically used the .21 size engine commonly applied in 1/8 scale model, where it is faster and more powerful 37. In a race, a finely tuned 2-stroke engine will provide power and reliability. It will be able to have all its components function in a longer lifespan, as they are constantly checked and taken care of, besides being able to provide better fuel economy and produce more power. A dyno test also provides a wide range of technical data needed to evaluate its performance. It is quite inaccurate and native for users to judge the performance of RC cars by manual assumption as suggested by 37, hence the only way to improve the matter is by analyzing and numerically testing them. By scouring through automotive websites, new technology magazines, tutorial videos, it is found that in the few existing innovated products that are available for purchase, no current dyno test units cover all tuning aspects 38. The various design developed is shown in Figure 1.1 and 1.2 respectively. Additionally, the design itself is not giving enough consideration for safety precautions. As a miniature equipment, RC dyno mimics the function and the basic structure of a life size car dyno, thus a field trip to a car workshop was arranged to understand the mechanism of a dyno to better facilitate the development process. To conduct a dyno testing, a dynamometer is connected to an analyzing software which will provide intended readings for the test subject. In this study the software used is Eagle Tree eLogger V4 39. These readings collected will be converted to meaningful information and displayed on a custom made user interact interface. Currently, rpm, amps and torque readings are available for this current version.

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