Introduction: the timeless wisdom of realism
Realism begins as a mythical tale of the idealism of the interwar period.
The inter-war scholars imposed the term of idealists.
The function of idealists was to explain the cause of war and find a remedy.
Idealists ignore the role of power and overestimated humans as rationals.
Believed that nation-states had interests in common, were very optimistic.
The Second World War demonstrated that the idealist approach was not adequate for studying international studies and was replaced by realism.
The Great Debate was between inter-war idealists and realists and realists were victorious.
Realism focus in on interests rather than ideology.
They searched for peace and wanted to demonstrated power could coexist.
Offers a way to maximizing the interest of states and often wanted an older classical thought.
The doctrine of the state is a way in which leaders follow international politics. Is a principal of international conduct “law of motion”
Preserve the health and strength of the state is a key factor.
Due to the use of statecraft instruments is allowed survival state can never be guaranteed.
The dangers than a state have was the essential core value in realism.
An important issue is the role of moral and ethics.
leaders should sacrifice their own interest to be in order to ethical conduct
Was necessary another kind of morality without the Christian virtue so the propose was a dual moral standard, it means that is different the moral inside than external.
Was necessary that international politics act in an unacceptable behavior sometimes.
Political community to perceive the state and the ethical community
Three core elements of realism: statism, survival, self-help.
Groups as fundamental of political analysis.
The principal actor in international politics is sovereign
The legitime representative is statism for a collective.
The legitimacy is exercise authority
Anarchy is international realms have lack of central authority.
When we talk about the organizational structure we talk about behavior.
independent sovereign states do not accept a higher power.
The hierarchical structure is in relation with super and subordination.
A priority is to ensure the survival in a state.
Power is a chance to survive, defined with military strategic terms.
Survival is the core national interest.
Self-help is an anarchical system, in there is no global government. Is responsible for their own well-being. Capabilities of engaging to prove sufficient or sufficient.
The balance of power is to threat hegemony, establish alliances, and seek independence.
Formal alliances NATO and Warsaw Pact.
Realism was unable to provide regional integration, security community.
Realism could not explain intra-state wars in the south.
Non-state actors: transnational corporations and regional institutions.
The realism death-knell was by the approach of transnationalism.
One realism, or many?
Exists the belief that realism is not only one, instead, it has types.
The distinction could be by periodization:
Classical realism, in context with Peloponnesian War, Classic Canon of western political.
Modern realism, First Great debated, after the Second World War.
Neo-realism, a theory of international politics.
The self-seeking egoist is understood by peoples states
Realist can, a condition of human nature by reducing realism.
Essential features of international politics: competition, war, fear.
Human nature being brought the roots of objective law.
Patriotic virtue is useful in order to survive.
The Peloponnesian War raised many of perennial issues of international politics. Is a classic example of how an anarchical structure impacts on international politics.
The national interests of Sparta eas survival, and change the distribution of power to preserve the empire.
Some human motivations: self-interest, ambition, fear.
Examples of power and territory were Nazi Germany, Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, and Hungary.
Into the human nature are aggressive impulses essentially.
With the excuse of gaining greater security, imperial expansion is legitimate.
Wise leadership ( acting based on power, self-interest, and self-defeating policies)
Could demise anarchy because is compatible with international order.
A consequence of the lack of authority was a security competition and interstate conflict
The distribution of power in the international system has three elements organizing people, distribution of capabilities and differentiation of units. And two principles :
Anarchy: a decentralized realm
Hierarchy: basis of the domestic order
To explain outcomes, unit-level variation does not affect.
Distribution of capabilities in units is the third tier.
Distribution of power is a key variable to understand international outcomes.
Ranking-ordering is something that structural realists was interested to create
The structure is determinate by the number of great powers.
The states could be worried by the fact that any state can use force to achieve their interests
The state should maximize power as maximum security because power means the end of security.
Power dynamics: anarchic system, offensive realism- defensive realism
The structure of the international system id to maximize their power position. ALL states seek to gain power.
The basic principle of action is a self-help
Be a global hegemon es the best path to peace, but it impossible and it’s a perpetual competition.
Factor as state-society, a perception of state leaders, and the motivation of states, made a bridge between unit-level and structural factors.
Neoclassical realism was in domestic politics as a variable in the distribution of power and foreign policy behavior. States has not the same interests.
“Intervening variable” in the theory of state-centered of realism is the ability od mobilize and direct resources.
State possess are the elements of national power.
The essential realism
The main factor of sovereignty. Non-intervention facilitated coexistence (does not apply with great powers).
A civil society can not begin unless security is established.
Zero-sum, is more for one actor and less fro another.
Power is a relational and relative concept.
Resources do not lead the victory. As in Six Day War
Survival :
The defensive actor does not search power. The offensive actor wanted a hegemonic position.
Is necessary leaders than can maintain the power.
Only if a leaders search a greater good can be immoral.
Theory of international politics to understand coexistence
The structure is the difference between domestic and international.
Security dilemma when one state creates uncertainty in the another that is defensive.
The balance of power emerges with the absence of policy to the balance.
Anarchy systems seek to perpetuate alliances and himself.
Self-interests are against free trade or security.
States and groups can increase their health with policies.