INTRODUCTIONParents play a highlyinfluential role in their children’s development. Baumrind (2012) describedthat pre-school children raised by parents with differing parenting stylesvaried in their degree of social competence. Baumrind (2012) explained thatmost of the parents adopt different parenting styles.Changalwa et.al (2012)revealed that there was a significant relationship between authoritativeparenting style and academic performance of college students.
Maphoso andDikeledi (2014) expressed that academic achievement is a factor of manyvariables. Academic achievement is thus associated with elitist lifestyle aswell as elevated livelihood in the society.Jeynes (2003) highlightedthat parental involvement affected the academic achievement of minoritystudents. Nyarko (2011) mentioned that parenting styles in different culturesmay differentially impact children’s academic achievement. Hong (2012) stated thatboth parental practices and parenting styles influence children’s schoolachievement. Efobil and Nwokolo (2011) described that authoritative parentingstyle is more common among parents than other styles of parenting.Fakeye (2014) opined thatthere was no significant difference in the reading achievement of pupils fromdifferent parenting style.
Kaisa, Hakan andJari-erik (2000) mentioned that adolescents’ achievement strategies wereassociated with parenting styles in the family. Three hundred and fifty-four14-year-old adolescents completed the strategy and attribution questionnaireand a family parenting style inventory.Turner, Chandler andHeffer (2009) described that authoritative parenting continues to influenceacademic performance of college students, by revealing that both intrinsicmotivation and self-efficacy predicted academic performance.Huver, Otten, Vries &Engels (2010) identified that an authoritarian parenting style is under thedimensions of demandingness which it involve obedience, conformity, parentalcontrols and the need to respect parental authority.Zupancic et al (2004)narrated that authoritarian parent’s exhibit unfriendly attitude with theirchildren and demand them to follow rules and decision without any argument.Authoritarian parents restrain children’s self-expression and freedom desires,and use power-assertive techniques (physical force, love withdrawal, commands,and threats) to achieve what they want from their children.Berg (2011) stated thatauthoritarian parents oblige compliance and set elevated requirements.
Theyfocus on success aspects and love is conditional with achievement. They areless nurturing than the other two styles of parenting. Lazar et al (2009)defined that parental extreme demandingness or control can include strictregulations, imposition of decisions and parental beliefs, all of theseparental characteristics show use of power in extreme form.
Zupancic et al (2004)explained that permissive parents follow a tolerant approach for the sake ofchildren’s socialization. These parents mostly ignore misconduct displayed bychildren. These parents does not maintain control over child’s conduct, howeverthey exhibit a tolerant and supportive attitude.
Rossman & Rea (2005) narratedthat permissive parents allow their children to experience a high level offreedom and do not impose rules and regulation to restrain their practices, unlessphysical harm is expected. Berg (2011) opined that permissive parents demandlittle or almost nothing from their children and maintain a friendlyinterrelation. Academic performance isthe conjunction of various educational outcomes in students. Performance canshow through various aspects, which differ from institution to institution.Aspectsof performance can include motivation, study skills, communication skills,creativity, creative writing, grades, student’s working skills,self-realization, self-reliance and attitude.
A study illustrated thatthe positive parenting produces a healthy and successful student Hoghughi , 2004). Kordi& Baharudin, 2010; Alsheikh, Parameswaran & Elhoweris (2010) opinedthat authoritarianparenting is mostly found to influence academic performance negatively. Thereare many results in the literature regarding the claim that authoritativeparenting is related to lower grades. Research investigated thatauthoritarian parenting is related to higher levels of school problems (Roche,Ensminger & Cherlin, 2007).
A research study narratedthat a negative correlation between permissive parenting and academic grades infamilies where parents have no involvement in their children’s education andhas not taken an initiative for a give-and-take relationship with theirchildren (Kordi & Baharudin, 2010; Alsheikh et al., 2010).Grobman, (2003); Seid& Mikre, (2008) expressed that the authoritative parents control theactivities of the children in a logical and reasonable way. These parent aredemanding and accepting, they appreciate oral discussions, explain the childrenthe logic behind their plans, and solicits their objections when they disagree.Seid & Mikre (2008)narrated that the authoritarian parents maintain the strict control on thebehavior and demand complete obedience from their children.
(Grobman(2003) defined that the permissive parents are more confirming to the demandsand actions of their children. They themselves give less responsibilities andtasks to their children. Coil (2005) showed thatsome parents are not concerned with the learning of their children; they justwant their children to have good grades in their exams. These parents placehigh importance to the result displayed on the report cards of children.Zimmerman (2001)described that academic performance can be defined as a self-regulatedlearning, including excellence in sports, arts, culture, behavior, confidence,and communication skills, and it shows how learners control their emotion,feelings, and actions in order to academically achievement.Rodriguez, Donovick, and Crowley(2009) opined that parenting styles are beneficial inunderstanding complex behaviors and attitudes associated with child outcomes.
Morawska (2007) statedthat children’s academic motivation and behavior are directly influenced byfamily activities and parents’ behavior, which are seen as the external factor.For instance, there is a positive outcome for both parents and children whenparents interact in a fun and loving way during children’s homework time.Phillipson (2007)revealed that parents are seen to communicate their characteristics orexplanations for their children’s achievement in terms of day-to-dayinteractions and behavior with their children. Brown &Iyengar (2008) defined that the foundation for parenting style and academicachievement is formed by the belief systems and attitudes in parents and theirchildren.Karavalis (2003) narratedthat authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules.
Ifasked to explain, the parent might simply reply, “Because I said so.”These parents have high demands, but are not responsive to their children. Inaddition, these parents are usually obedience and status oriented, and theyalways expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation.Steinberg, Eisengart,& Cauffman (2006) mentioned that Interestingly, adolescents withauthoritative parents reported higher grades in school performance thanadolescents with neglectful parents, and demonstrated stronger schoolorientation, school engagement, and bonding with teachers than adolescents withneglectful parents.Baumrind (2012) opinedthat children with uninvolved parents are likely to have low levels offunctioning in many areas.
They tend to do poorly in school and, particularlyas they move into high school, are more likely to exhibit delinquent behaviorand to be depressed .Parenting styles play avital role on the academic performance of students. Thestudy emphasize on the importance of parenting styles that play a beneficial rolein the education of children in order to ensure success. Therefore, the researcherwished to conduct the research on the topic of examining the parenting styleson student’s academic performance in high school.STATEMENTOF THE PROBLEM:The study was focus onexamining the effect of parenting styles on the academic performance of highschool students.
SIGNIFICANCEOF THE STUDY:Parenting is a family dynamic that oftenhave a direct impact toward and within a family.There are three types ofparenting styles Authoritative Parenting Styles, Authoritarian Parenting styleand Permissive parenting styles. It is important to look all the parentingstyles and examine its effect on academic performance.· This study may be helpful for parents toknow which parenting style is more appropriate for their children. OBJECTIVEOF THE STUDY:The following was the objective of this study: · To examine the effects of parenting styleson academic performance of high school students.
RESEARCHQUESTIONS:Following were the research questions ofthis study:1. Is there any statistically significanteffect of father’s’ parenting styles on academic achievement of high schoolstudents?2. is there statistically significant effectof mother’s parenting styles on academic achievement of high school students? 1.METHODOLOGY:1.
1 NATURE OFRESEARCH:Theresearch was descriptive in nature. 1.2. RESEARCH DESIGN:Thiswas survey study.
1.3. POPULATION:Thedata was collected from all students of all public and private high schools ofLahore city.
4.1.SAMPLE SIZE:Totalrepresentative sample was consist of 150 high class students.1.
4.2.SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:Randomsampling technique was used to select students.1.4.3.
NATURE OF PARTICIPANT:Thehigh class students of public and private schools in Lahore city was theparticipants of the study.2.INSTRUMENTS:Questionnairewas developed for students as a tool of research.
DATACOLLECTION:Thedata of the study was collected personally.DATAANALYSIS:Aftercollection of data, it was analyzed by using statistical techniques.