Introduction ?Suicide is an important public health issue that revolves around biological, social, economic and psychological issues. Experiences of sexual abuse, emotional and financial turmoil, depression, stress and other societal social problems the leading causes of suicide worldwide. This essay will outline and discuss evidence regarding disparities in suicide rates between men and women. ?Research shows that middle-aged men are more prone to suicide than other age categories (Parker, 2017). According to data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, suicide rates have increased steadily in the US between 1999 and 2014. While suicide is among the leading causes of death among the young population of adolescents and young adults, and the middle-aged, the male demographic group is more affected than the female. Statistics show that suicide cases increased from 17.8 % to 20.
7 % for men compared to 4 % to 5.8 % for women in the surveyed period. (Curtin, Warner, and Hedegaard, 2016). The first primary reason for increased suicide cases among men is the effects of choices of the teenage life and young adulthood. In the process of making decisions, adolescent boys and young men try to live to the pressure of self-reliance and the demeanor of not showing any vulnerability (Poynton-Smith, 2014). For example, a young man who has cleared college may have a hard time battling drugs or other issues secretly due to unfulfilled dreams. The individual masks the insecurities by projecting emotional control. However, increased psychological pressure causes the person to feel powerless due to fear of being judged and the individual sees suicide as the viable option.
Secondly, middle-aged men are stuck between the prewar and postwar generations of masculinity. While prewar men exhibit austere masculinity that is more silent, the postwar man is outspoken and individualistic. For example, soldiers have a very different view than millennials and adolescents, and the young adults in between the two generations are unclear on where to stand which causes more pressure that leads to suicide cases. Thirdly, separation and divorce affect both men and women, but according to Watson (2012), divorce affects the male population more because men derive physical and emotional health from strong connections and relationships like marriage more than women. The differences in methods of suicide are the primary cause of the differences in suicide rates. While men mostly use firearms and hanging, women use poisoning, cutting and self-suffocation through a drug overdose.
The chances of rescue and survival for men are therefore minimal compared to women. ?Men with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to commit suicide than wealthy men. The socioeconomic factors that cause suicide among men are job loss, lack of quality and sufficient job opportunities and low levels of income.
Unemployed men experience the perceived shame of lacking a source of income and get the feeling of failing their masculine duty of providing for their loved ones. Furthermore, some men who are not employed feel betrayed by the system of education and governance. Therefore, they repress their feeling because of masculine ideals or because they feel that their voices are not heard (Nordt et al., 2015, p. 239-245). For example, consider a man who struggled to raise tuition fees due as a result of coming from a low incoming earning family. If the individual did not complete college education due to lack of tuition, he might live believing the systems of education and governance are unfair. Also, is the labor market is slow and employment makes it hard to earn a living, the failure to provide for his family can lead to low self-esteem which is a risk factor for suicide motivated by economic status.
Having a well-paying job ensures mental health and emotional stability for both men and women. Instances of job loss are the other primary economic factor causing suicide among men. In fact, research shows that one out of every five suicide cases or attempts among men is a result of job loss (Gardner, 2015). Job loss causes mental and emotional instability which pave the way for stress and depression.
Such mental conditions increase emotional and psychological pressures that eventually lead to suicide when the state of helplessness and powerlessness settles. Unlike men, women with lower socioeconomic status are not prone to suicidal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status. Women do not feel that they have to meet the two central demands of the masculine role: being employed, and providing for the family. As a result, they do not have a substantial burden or weight on their shoulder like men.
Ironically, there are more suicide attempts among women than men, but more men die due to suicide than women (Vijayakumar, 2015).Conclusion ?The pressures of self-reliance and the need to project control and masculinity cause a state of psychological and emotional breakdown that is the leading cause of suicide. Moreover, men with lower socioeconomic status cannot support their families or assert their masculine presence in the workplace because they have no jobs or opportunities. Women do not suffer from the conflicting idea of masculinity. As a result, failure to fill the male role does not affect womennegatively.