Introduction: to other cells outside their lineage, such

Introduction:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifocal Demyelinating disease ofthe central nervous system (CNS) which can lead to sever physical and cognitivedisability and neurological defects (1). Damage to this myelin sheath protecting the nerve cells in thebrain and spinal cord progresses to damage or destruction of the axons (nervefibers) over time leading to irreversible neurodegeneration explaining theprogression of the disease and the increase in disability (2). Unfortunately, there is no cure for MS and current remedies onlyhelp in alleviating the symptoms and halting the immune attack (3). But Stem cell therapies offers a new hope for treatment of suchneurological diseases, as stem cells was efficiently proven to differentiateeffectively into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in vitro and in vivo (4) and secretes neurotrophic factors having immunomodulatory effectspreventing further damage and creating a regenerative microenvironment forremyelination (5). Based on these results, several small pilot clinical trials insubjects with advanced MS have demonstrated that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)administration is safe and provided an early signal of clinical effectiveness (6).Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) is a population of MSCs whichhave a much higher frequency in the adipose tissue than in bone marrow(approximately 500-fold more).

Moreover, ADSCs can be harvested by minimallyinvasive procedures that should facilitate their use in cell transplantation(Tsuji, Rubin, & Marra, 2014). These cells are capable to differentiate toother cells outside their lineage, such as neural progenitors andoligodendrocytes. Moreover, ADSCs through paracrine effects are able to promotesurvival and proliferation of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells whichleading to further the process of remyelination.

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Another relevant finding ofprevious study was that a high percentage of ADSCs which transplant in ratmodel of MS, expressed Olig2 and MBP that are special markers of oligodendrocyte(7,8). Therefore, ADSCs transplantation can induce nerve repair andprovide a practical way for remyelination in neurodegenerative diseases.In order to maximize the cellular proliferation efficiency ofADSCs, low level laser irradiation was used to activate the cells. Laserirradiation at different intensities has been recognized to inhibit and/orstimulate cellular processes. Recent findings suggest that at the cellularlevel, laser energy of a particular wavelength can initiate signaling cascades,such as those that promote cellular proliferation (Mvula, Moore, &Abrahamse, 2010).While administration of ex vivo culture-expanded stem cells hasbeen used to study immunosuppressive mechanisms in multiple models ofautoimmune diseases, less is known about the uncultured, nonexpanded stromalvascular fraction (SVF)-based therapy. The SVF is composed of a heterogeneouspopulation of cells and has been used clinically to treat acute and chronicdiseases, alleviating symptoms in a range of tissues and organs (Blaber et al.

,2012). Equine and canine studies demonstrating anti-inflammatory andregenerative effects of non-expanded SVF cells have yielded promising results(Abdallah, Shamaa, El-Tookhy, & Abd El-Mottaleb, 2015). the ability of human SVF cells was compared with culture expandedADSCs and bone-derived marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as a treatment of myelinoligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35–55)-induced experimental autoimmuneencephalitis in mice, a model of MS. The data indicated that intraperitonealadministration of all cell types significantly ameliorates the severity ofdisease. Furthermore, the data also demonstrated, for the first time, that theSVF was as effective as the more commonly cultured BMSCs and ADSCs in an MSmodel (9).

The aim of thiswork is the histological evaluation of the transplantation of non-expandedLaser activated Adipose derived SVF in a Dog Model of Toxin induced MS. 

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