Introduction: a combination of the three disease,


In 1998, Andrew Wakefield, a British doctor and
medical researcher stated with other professional scientists, that there is a
relationship between Measles Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine with autism and
bowel disease by publishing a plenty of studies named as Ileal-lymphoid-nodular
hyperplasia non-specific colts and pervasive developmental disorder in children
(Wakefield et al 1998). Overall, they failed to show the evidence of the
connection between MMR vaccine and the development of autism. Moreover, Dr. Wakefield
report had a massive impact on children health due to the serious diseases that
the vaccine showed, parents were terrified about the risks of autism after the
vaccination. As a result, the report was retracted from lancet 2010.


Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is an
immunization vaccine against the MMR. It is a combination of the three disease,
which is given in a single injection (, 2016). The vaccine injected two
times to children, the first time was after their first birthday and the other
one was between 3 to 5 years old. Because of this, measles deaths declined
around less than 80% from 2000 to 2015 which makes the three disease (Measles
Mumps and Rubella) are no longer threaten the world. Dr. Wakefield, in 1998 indicated
that MMR vaccine leads to autism connecting with bowel disease. He chose 12
children who were suffering from autism and other diseases such as development
disorder. Also he stated that parents notice the signs in a short period after
the vaccine.


Positive points:

The report has some positive sides, for
instance, the studies and the investigations were authorized ethically by the Royal
Free Hospital NHS trust. Dr. Wakefield got the parents authorization by signing
the informed paper to test their children. In addition to this, the General
Medical Council (GMC) proved it. Wakefield also used the scientific structure
in his research which has been divided into 4 parts (introduction, methods,
result, and discussion). Furthermore, Wakefield included data and tables in his
research as well as images and biopsy samples to emphasize the facts and
showing it in a higher quality picture. He also used more than 20 reliable
references to prove his research such as University of Durham, Lancet. Besides this,
the 12 children were anonymous and the 13 doctors used scientific words in
their research.

Negative points:

On the other hand, Wakefield research has lots
and lots of mistakes and errors. The most remarkable one is using a small
population to accomplish this study by basing it on only 12 children 11 boys
and 1 girl as if you want a reliable investigation you need to have more
patients who are in the same age and having equal gender. And there was no
control group because of the consecutive selection of the children, he didn’t
provide a baseline of data to compare it with the result and this cause
increase in the chances of errors and bias (Rao and Andrade, 2011). Also
according to the General Medical Council (GMC), Wakefield was the only one who
wrote the last version of the research under the use of authors names and
reputations, as they appear to have been having no knowledge of what he was
doing (Godlee, Smith and Marcovitch, 2016). Furthermore, Wakefield focused on
children who suffer from gastroenterological and other disease and neglected
children who have only autism. He also based his study of children who have autism
and other disorders disease and forgot other children who don’t have autism.
Moreover, he did a more unnecessary test, for example, lleocolonoscopy and
biopsy sampling, lumbar puncture, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI) without their permission and approval also he tried to
give the children new vaccine without telling the parent. In addition, the
parents might give faulty information about the abnormal attitude of their
children as they say their children were not communicated so that makes his
theories based on parent remembrance. Following that he did not pay attention
if there were other cases in the families of the children which might make it a
genetic disease. Even though his research approved, many rules were broken.
Finally, this report spread fear in parents and has lots of impact on children
medical health, and it has been attracted in the media, which make Wakefield
clarify the facts.

Impact on public health and incidence of autism:

When Andrew Wakefield published his research and illustrated
that the MMR vaccine causes autism without showing any evidence, parents were
concerned about it, so they stopped vaccinating their children. Therefore, the
average of MMR vaccine decreased and because of that many deaths and measles
cases were caused. Due to Wakefield allegation, too many countries such as
Ireland, The US, and Britain suffered from measles outbreaks, for example,
Ireland recorded 3 deaths, more than 300 cases and 100 patients under hospital
care (New England Journal of Medicine, 2016). This would have been avoided if
Wakefield did not publish his study. Furthermore, the General Medical Council
established that Dr. Wakefield’s research was fraudulent (Jardine, 2016).
Although a lot of scientists from all over the world did plenty of
epidemiological studies which prove that there is no connection between the MMR
vaccine and autism there are parents who still concerned about vaccinating
their children.


To conclude Wakefield
and his 12 colleagues were trying to prove that there is a link between MMR
vaccine and autism. However, this study was based on incomplete and unreliable
data in his research. Even though the study retracted 12 years later, further
studies proved that there is no like between MMR vaccine and autism. Moreover,
the research led to raised national awareness on increasing research quality
and standards. The negative points overweight the positive points based on the


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