INTRODUCTION still evolving and enriched with new features and

INTRODUCTION

At the beginning of the
1980s it was realized that the European countries were using many different,
incompatible mobile phone systems. At the same time, the needs for
telecommunication services were remarkably increased. Due to this, CEPT
(Conférence European Posts Telecommunications) founded a group to specify a
common mobile system for Western Europe.

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This group was named
“Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has
since been interpreted in other ways, but the most Common expression nowadays
is Global System for Mobile communications. At the beginning of the 1990s, the
lack of a common mobile system was seen to be a general, world -wide problem.

For this reason the GSM
system has now spread also to the Eastern European countries, Africa, Asia and
Australia. The USA, South America in general and Japan had made a decision to
adopt other types of mobile systems which are not compatible with GSM.

However, in the USA the
Personal Communication System (PCS) has been adopted which uses GSM technology
with a few variations.

HISTORY OF GSM

In 1982,
Conference of European Post and Telecommunications formed Group Speciale Mobile
(GSM)

In 1987, 15
operators from 13 countries signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)

In 1991,
Finland’s operator Radiolinia launched first GSM network in July 1991

In 1992,
Massive deployment of GSM started

By 2000 GSM
became the most popular 2G technology worldwide

GSM standard still
evolving and enriched with new features and services

WHAT IS GSM?

GSM (Global System for
Mobile communications) is an open, digital cellular technology used for
transmitting mobile voice and data services.

RELATED LITERATURE/WORKS

GSM supports voice calls
and data transfer speeds of up to 9.6 kbps, together with the transmission of
SMS (Short Message Service).

GSM operates in the 900MHz
and 1.8GHz bands in Europe and the 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands in the US. GSM
services are also transmitted via 850MHz spectrum in Australia, Canada and many
Latin American countries. The use of harmonized spectrum across most of the
globe, combined with GSM’s international roaming capability, allows travelers
to access the same mobile services at home and abroad. GSM enables individuals
to be reached via the same mobile number in up to 219 countries.

Terrestrial GSM networks
now cover more than 90% of the world’s population. GSM satellite roaming has
also extended service access to areas where terrestrial coverage is not
available.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FROM LITERATURE

One
of the most important conclusions from the early tests of the new GSM
technology was that the new standard should employ Time Division Multiple
Access (TDMA) technology. This ensured the support of major corporate players
like Nokia, Ericsson and Siemens, and the flexibility of having access to a
broad range of suppliers and the potential to get product faster into the
marketplace. After a series of tests, the GSM digital standard was proven to
work in 1988.

With
global coverage goals in mind, being compatible with GSM from day one is a
prerequisite for any new system that would add functionality to GSM. As with
other 2G systems, GSM handles voice efficiently, but the support for data and
Internet applications is limited. A data connection is established in just the
same way as for a regular voice call; the user dials in and a circuit-switched
connection continues during the entire session. If the user disconnects and
wants to re -connect, the dial-in sequence has to be repeated. This issue,
coupled with the limitation that users are billed for the time that they are
connected, creates a need for packet data for GSM.

The
digital nature of GSM allows the transmission of data (both synchronous and
asynchronous) to or from ISDN terminals, although the most basic service
support by GSM is telephony.17 Speech, which is inherently analog,
has to be digitized. The method employed by ISDN, and by current telephone
systems for multiplexing voice lines over high-speed trunks and optical fiber
lines, is Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM). From the start, planners of GSM wanted
to ensure ISDN compatibility in services offered, although the attainment of
the standard ISDN bit rate of 64 Kbit/s was difficult to achieve, thereby
belying some of the limitations of a radio link. The 64 Kbit/s signal, although
simple to implement, contains significant redundancy.

FUTURE RESEARCH/DEVELOPMENT
PROPOSITIONS

The 5G Innovation centre
(5GIC) at the University of Surrey in Guildford, a key organisation within the
UK, describes 5G as the next generation of mobile connectivity technologies
that supports mobile broadband as well as networking of billions of devices. 5G
will be a flexible infrastructure capable of handling ever-increasing demand
for mobile data and providing connectivity for future technologies such as the
Internet of Things. In one sentence; the 5GIC vision is “always sufficient rate
to give users the perception of infinite capacity”.

The mobile
journey

Mobile
technology has been on a rapid journey since the launch of digital cellular
systems in the UK some 20 years ago. Work on Global System for Mobile
Communications (GSM) started in 1982, prior to the introduction of 1st generation
analogue cellular in the UK.

The
goal of GSM was to provide a pan-European system with international roaming
between member states, something which wasn’t possible with country-specific
1st generation technologies. GSM delivered a standard which, in the early
1990s, was widely adopted, not just in Europe. The early GSM standards
supported Short Message Service and circuit switched data, enabling users to
connect laptops to external data networks. The increasing demand for data, and
in particular Internet access, led to the development of General Packet Radio

Service which introduced
packet-switching capability to GSM running in parallel with the existing
circuit switched network.

The
introduction of 3G was based on the same architecture as GSM/General Packet
Radio Service although with a new radio interface to support higher data rates
and greater capacity. This was subsequently enhanced with High Speed Packet
Access technologies.

The
big change to cellular network architecture came with 4G or Long Term Evolution
(LTE). LTE is an all-IP network withno circuit switching, voice is simply IP
data with a high Quality of Service applied and implemented. This move to an
all-packed based system enables a much simplified network architecture and the
use of an advanced Quality of Service and policy control framework enables a
wide range of new and innovative services to be delivered.

5G
is expected to be standardised by the year 2020 and will be commercially
deployed a few years later. Although 5G will introduce new technologies, much
will be an evolution of 4G LTE-Advanced and WiFi both of which are developing
to offer ever greater peak and average user data rates and new and innovative
services.

CONCLUSIONS

ADVANTAGES OF GSM

1.     GSM is more suitable
network with robust pitfall. · Low signal inside the building and house.

2.     The subscriber globally
creates much better in network effect for GSM handset maker’s carries and end
users.

3.     It can be use repeaters.

4.     A customer has been better
voice quality and low cost amount in alternatives to making cells like (sms)
etc.

5.     It is easy to implement.

6.     International roaming is
not a big problem.

7.    
GSM allows network operation to after roaming service so that
customer can use whole over the world.

DISADVANTAGES OF GSM

1.     Many of the technology are
patented and should be license from qualcomm.

2.     When customers using
particular sites going up and the range of the sites goes down.

3.     Manufactures are not
release IS-95 devices due to the lack of the big market and it come in late in
market.

4.     IS-95 is normally
installed in small tower.

5.     GSM has fixed max call
sites range up to 35 km that is very limited.

INTRODUCTION

At the beginning of the
1980s it was realized that the European countries were using many different,
incompatible mobile phone systems. At the same time, the needs for
telecommunication services were remarkably increased. Due to this, CEPT
(Conférence European Posts Telecommunications) founded a group to specify a
common mobile system for Western Europe.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

This group was named
“Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has
since been interpreted in other ways, but the most Common expression nowadays
is Global System for Mobile communications. At the beginning of the 1990s, the
lack of a common mobile system was seen to be a general, world -wide problem.

For this reason the GSM
system has now spread also to the Eastern European countries, Africa, Asia and
Australia. The USA, South America in general and Japan had made a decision to
adopt other types of mobile systems which are not compatible with GSM.

However, in the USA the
Personal Communication System (PCS) has been adopted which uses GSM technology
with a few variations.

HISTORY OF GSM

In 1982,
Conference of European Post and Telecommunications formed Group Speciale Mobile
(GSM)

In 1987, 15
operators from 13 countries signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)

In 1991,
Finland’s operator Radiolinia launched first GSM network in July 1991

In 1992,
Massive deployment of GSM started

By 2000 GSM
became the most popular 2G technology worldwide

GSM standard still
evolving and enriched with new features and services

WHAT IS GSM?

GSM (Global System for
Mobile communications) is an open, digital cellular technology used for
transmitting mobile voice and data services.

RELATED LITERATURE/WORKS

GSM supports voice calls
and data transfer speeds of up to 9.6 kbps, together with the transmission of
SMS (Short Message Service).

GSM operates in the 900MHz
and 1.8GHz bands in Europe and the 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands in the US. GSM
services are also transmitted via 850MHz spectrum in Australia, Canada and many
Latin American countries. The use of harmonized spectrum across most of the
globe, combined with GSM’s international roaming capability, allows travelers
to access the same mobile services at home and abroad. GSM enables individuals
to be reached via the same mobile number in up to 219 countries.

Terrestrial GSM networks
now cover more than 90% of the world’s population. GSM satellite roaming has
also extended service access to areas where terrestrial coverage is not
available.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FROM LITERATURE

One
of the most important conclusions from the early tests of the new GSM
technology was that the new standard should employ Time Division Multiple
Access (TDMA) technology. This ensured the support of major corporate players
like Nokia, Ericsson and Siemens, and the flexibility of having access to a
broad range of suppliers and the potential to get product faster into the
marketplace. After a series of tests, the GSM digital standard was proven to
work in 1988.

With
global coverage goals in mind, being compatible with GSM from day one is a
prerequisite for any new system that would add functionality to GSM. As with
other 2G systems, GSM handles voice efficiently, but the support for data and
Internet applications is limited. A data connection is established in just the
same way as for a regular voice call; the user dials in and a circuit-switched
connection continues during the entire session. If the user disconnects and
wants to re -connect, the dial-in sequence has to be repeated. This issue,
coupled with the limitation that users are billed for the time that they are
connected, creates a need for packet data for GSM.

The
digital nature of GSM allows the transmission of data (both synchronous and
asynchronous) to or from ISDN terminals, although the most basic service
support by GSM is telephony.17 Speech, which is inherently analog,
has to be digitized. The method employed by ISDN, and by current telephone
systems for multiplexing voice lines over high-speed trunks and optical fiber
lines, is Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM). From the start, planners of GSM wanted
to ensure ISDN compatibility in services offered, although the attainment of
the standard ISDN bit rate of 64 Kbit/s was difficult to achieve, thereby
belying some of the limitations of a radio link. The 64 Kbit/s signal, although
simple to implement, contains significant redundancy.

FUTURE RESEARCH/DEVELOPMENT
PROPOSITIONS

The 5G Innovation centre
(5GIC) at the University of Surrey in Guildford, a key organisation within the
UK, describes 5G as the next generation of mobile connectivity technologies
that supports mobile broadband as well as networking of billions of devices. 5G
will be a flexible infrastructure capable of handling ever-increasing demand
for mobile data and providing connectivity for future technologies such as the
Internet of Things. In one sentence; the 5GIC vision is “always sufficient rate
to give users the perception of infinite capacity”.

The mobile
journey

Mobile
technology has been on a rapid journey since the launch of digital cellular
systems in the UK some 20 years ago. Work on Global System for Mobile
Communications (GSM) started in 1982, prior to the introduction of 1st generation
analogue cellular in the UK.

The
goal of GSM was to provide a pan-European system with international roaming
between member states, something which wasn’t possible with country-specific
1st generation technologies. GSM delivered a standard which, in the early
1990s, was widely adopted, not just in Europe. The early GSM standards
supported Short Message Service and circuit switched data, enabling users to
connect laptops to external data networks. The increasing demand for data, and
in particular Internet access, led to the development of General Packet Radio

Service which introduced
packet-switching capability to GSM running in parallel with the existing
circuit switched network.

The
introduction of 3G was based on the same architecture as GSM/General Packet
Radio Service although with a new radio interface to support higher data rates
and greater capacity. This was subsequently enhanced with High Speed Packet
Access technologies.

The
big change to cellular network architecture came with 4G or Long Term Evolution
(LTE). LTE is an all-IP network withno circuit switching, voice is simply IP
data with a high Quality of Service applied and implemented. This move to an
all-packed based system enables a much simplified network architecture and the
use of an advanced Quality of Service and policy control framework enables a
wide range of new and innovative services to be delivered.

5G
is expected to be standardised by the year 2020 and will be commercially
deployed a few years later. Although 5G will introduce new technologies, much
will be an evolution of 4G LTE-Advanced and WiFi both of which are developing
to offer ever greater peak and average user data rates and new and innovative
services.

CONCLUSIONS

ADVANTAGES OF GSM

1.     GSM is more suitable
network with robust pitfall. · Low signal inside the building and house.

2.     The subscriber globally
creates much better in network effect for GSM handset maker’s carries and end
users.

3.     It can be use repeaters.

4.     A customer has been better
voice quality and low cost amount in alternatives to making cells like (sms)
etc.

5.     It is easy to implement.

6.     International roaming is
not a big problem.

7.    
GSM allows network operation to after roaming service so that
customer can use whole over the world.

DISADVANTAGES OF GSM

1.     Many of the technology are
patented and should be license from qualcomm.

2.     When customers using
particular sites going up and the range of the sites goes down.

3.     Manufactures are not
release IS-95 devices due to the lack of the big market and it come in late in
market.

4.     IS-95 is normally
installed in small tower.

5.     GSM has fixed max call
sites range up to 35 km that is very limited.

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