Introduction picture above, normal bronchioles have thin walls, the

Introduction I chose to do my assignment on asthma, which is a disorder affecting the respiratory system because Irish people has one of the highest rates of asthma sufferers in the world which I found was interesting because I live here and I want to find out if its hereditary or can environmental factors cause it, also a few of my family members have this disorder and I wanted to learn how it affected their everyday life . Asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting children and the most common chronic respiratory disease affecting adults (HSE). Anatomy and Physiology of the DisorderAsthma is a disorder that affects the bronchioles in the lungs. The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi, bronchioles are tubes that carries oxygen to the alveoli for gaseous exchange. They get smaller and narrower as they move further into the lungs, they can be as narrow as one cell thick (R.Sullivan, class slides). As shown in the picture above, normal bronchioles have thin walls, the wall muscles are relaxed and there are no obstructions blocking the airways which leads to normal gaseous exchange in the alveoli compared to an asthma sufferer where the wall muscles are thick and the smooth rings of muscle surrounding the bronchioles contract and become narrower causing it harder to breathe, the trigger worsens inflammation causing the mucosal lining to become more swollen and secrete more mucus and the mucus blocks the airway during asthmatic attacks. In a normal functioning lung, the mucus is used to filter out particles such as pollen or dust. (Praveen Buddiga, MedScape). An asthma sufferer has drastic changes in functions in their lungs with this disorder. The lining in the bronchioles become inflamed and swollen because it is so hypersensitive to allergens or other triggers, during an asthmatic episode the bronchioles inflame not allowing enough oxygen to be carried further into the lungs (ALA). If a trigger irritates the lining of the airways, the muscles become tightened know as bronchospasm which also does not allow oxygen to pass through. There could also be a build up of mucus also blocking the passageway (NIH).Symptoms (ACAAI)CoughingDifficulty breathingShortness of breathChest tightnessWheezingTreatment (ACAAI)Asthma is a long term disease which has no cure, the goal is to control the disease to decrease the chronic  symptoms of coughing and wheezing, these include:Quick -relief medications such as ( short-acting inhaled beta2-agonists and anticholinergics) which are both bronchodilators which expand the bronchi allowing air to go in and out of lungs easilyLong – term control medicines such as ( antileukotrienes, cromolyn sodium and immunomodulators) which reduce inflammation of airways and improves asthma controlAllergy shots and sublingual tablets (if asthma is caused by allergens)Effects of Asthma on Lifestyle of Person who has this DisorderPeople who have asthma can generally control it and manage their symptoms with medication, they may go to their doctor and make an action plan which helps the person know when and how to take medicines and it also helps them find triggers that cause the symptoms. They can go to regular checkups with their doctor to see if asthma is worsening or getting better (NIH). Asthma sufferers are advised not to smoke or not to be around smoke, gentle exercising could help relieve the symptoms of asthma (NHS). Asthma can affect someone’s social life, they may have to be aware of triggers before attending events or not being able to do some things their friends and families do which sometimes leads to sadness and  self confidence issues (Asthma UK).During the interview I done with my cousin, asthma does affect her daily life in different ways. She is 14 years old and she was diagnosed with asthma when she was 8 years old. The symptoms she deals with are coughing and wheezing which she said was tiring for her, she uses two different inhalers everyday which helps her control the asthma and prevents an asthma attack . She doesn’t visit the doctor regularly as it not a severe case of asthma. It affects her sleeping as she sometimes wakes up during the night because she can’t breathe and needs to use her inhaler. She can still play sports but she would always need the inhaler by her side at all times, asthma doesn’t affect her social life, she goes out with friends and does everyday things. The smell of smoke is the biggest trigger for her, she can’t inhale any smoke, if she does she would not be able to breathe and may have an asthma attack. Asthma does not limit her in daily life she just has to be careful of her surroundings and to always carry her inhaler with her.ConclusionAsthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease in the world and it affects everyone in different ages although it does not have to limit a person, you can learn to manage your symptoms and not let it affect your daily life. I learnt many interesting facts while researching asthma such as, it can definitely be triggered by environmental factors such as pollen or smoke but is often hereditary , it can affect a person’s social and psychological health. Doctors can help find certain triggers for some people which reduces the risk of an attack, and lastly, there are many simple medications that can ease the symptoms and control this disorder.Bibliography ACAAI Public Website. (2018). Asthma. online Available at: http://acaai.org/asthma Accessed 1 Jan. 2018.American Lung Association. (2018). How Asthma Affects Your Body. online Available at: http://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/asthma/learn-about-asthma/how-asthma-affects-your-body.html?referrer=https://www.google.ie/ Accessed 1 Jan. 2018.Asthma, V. (2018). ventolin inhaler hfa albuterol mcg 200 doses salbutamol treat asthma. online Buyonlineventolin.com. Available at: https://www.buyonlineventolin.com/ventolin-inhaler/1-ventolin-inhaler-hfa-100-mcg-200-doses-salbutamol-albuterol-treat-asthma.html Accessed 1 Jan. 2018.Asthma UK. (2018). Asthma UK | Social life when you have severe asthma. online Available at: https://www.asthma.org.uk/advice/severe-asthma/making-life-easier-severe-asthma/social-life-and-severe-asthma/ Accessed 1 Jan. 2018.Emedicine.medscape.com. (2018). Asthma in Older Adults: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiology. online Available at: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2001721-overview#a4 Accessed 1 Jan. 2018.Ireland’s Health Service. (2018). Clinical Strategy and Programmes Division – Asthma in Ireland – Ireland’s Health Service. online Available at: http://www.hse.ie/eng/about/Who/cspd/ncps/asthma/asthma-ireland/ Accessed 1 Jan. 2018.Nhlbi.nih.gov. (2018). Asthma | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. online Available at: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/asthma Accessed 1 Jan. 2018.nhs.uk. (2018). Living with. online Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/asthma/living-with/ Accessed 1 Jan. 2018. 

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