Introduction: needed for decision-making purposes. Decision support systems




The researched articles
essentially focus on significance of the Information systems in the business,
their Criticality in the converting the data into the information to cater the
needs of the business as well as improve the overall efficiency and performance
of the business processes. They emphasize on the use of the Information systems
for taking the competitive advantages in the market place. They also explain
the detailed evolution of the Information systems from the Transaction processing
systems to Expert and knowledge management systems.

Organizations usually adopt to
the various levels of the decision makings based on the management hierarchies.
For example, board of directors involves in the Strategic or long-term
planning, Unit managers makes the Tactical plans for the sub-units of the
company, whereas operating managers creates and implements the weekly
production schedules.  It means that
various levels of the management use wide varieties of the information in the
process of the decision making and all this information generated , classified
and stored and tightly integrated by the information systems.



While these articles talking
about the evolution of the information systems, describes how they improved
from using them as a transaction processing systems (TPS)for record keeping, classifying,
storing the data purposes. Later their significance is extended to generate a
pre-defined report to the management that would give managers the information
they needed for decision-making purposes. Decision support systems developed in
1970s gave the ability to the system users to interactively analyze the
business and Adhoc analysis capabilities. With the advancements in the microcomputers
and in the field of the networking, Information system’s infrastructure
underwent the revolutionary changes.  
Executive information systems integrate the information of the MIS and
EIS and made an easy access to analysis of business performance, actions of all
competitors, and economic developments to support strategic planning.   


Articles talks about the
application of the information system infrastructure such as Enterprise

planning (ERP) systems. From the
introduction of the accounting management software, it has been evolved through
the various level of management while integrating with the already developed or
legacy software components. It has tremendous contribution in the material
planning, customer relationship management, Supply chain, human resources and
payroll management, marketing and sales and much more. The information systems
that have been put in place in the current world aim at improving both the
internal and the external environments.



They have provisions for users of
the system who are in the organization and those that are from outside. This
eases all business activities that companies are obligated to perform.
Competitive advantage is then achieved gradually as the companies grow.

Information systems not just
helps to improve the production processes, it also helps to enhance the value
of the information. Major areas that facilitates the business analytics is
Business intelligence, Data mining and Online analytical processing (OLAP).
They help to analyze the huge historical information and identify the hidden
complex relationships to uncover the new opportunities for the business. The
advancements in the artificial intelligence will create a shift from manual
human interventions to an automated processing and helps as an advice expert





Information systems used as an
effective tool for conduction the business activities. Businesses have adopted
the systems to gain a competitive advantage in their areas of specialization.
Improvements made from using them as an internal system to a system that can
aid the company to efficiently interact with its business environment and the
generated integration of all functionalities of the organization. Continuous
advancement using the AI, e-commerce making these systems to increase its speed
and reach of our information, to provide even tighter integration combined with
greater flexibility. 


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