Introduction flow of product throughout the supply chain. Demand

Introduction

In today’s market
where the general competitiveness of the market is quite high, all
organizations have to pay good attention to their supply chains. The
consumption of a product or service depends highly on how efficiently the
organization is able to manage their supply chains. A supply chain is defined
as the collection of processes, individuals and other co-related groups that
concern themselves with the successful deliveries of products or services,
based on their business market. An effective supply chain always makes sure of
the fact that their product or service is most easily available to the
consumers. This report will shed light on the various aspects of supply chain
management as well as the corporate social responsibility of the two largest organizations
in the respective fields of sportswear and automobiles; Nike and Toyota.

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

Overall design of the supply chains

Nike, being the
world’s largest and most well-known sports brand has had to pay a lot of
attention to the quality of their products. This enables them to function with
utmost regard for the products that they sell, keeping in mind the various
ethical as well as social concerns of the same. The product
of Nike may include the different men and women shoes. It has been estimated
that the products of Nike are able to attract more number of customers towards
themselves. The shoes that are manufactured by the organization are quite
effective enough in fulfilling the needs of the customers.  There are a number of resources that have
pointed out that the quality is something that Nike assures in all the products
that are produced by them.  However to
attract more number of customers towards themselves, the organization have also
added a number of products to the product line of the organization.

A few of
them may include dresses, gears. The supply chain management of the organization
is  also quite effective in this regard.Nike, selling $9 billion worth of athletic shoes
annually, does so without owning any factories itself, performance, and
reducing claims and cancellations to lower inventory holding costs. Focused on
actual point-of-sale demand, processes are being transformed from the retail
shelf backwards, to achieve a leveled flow of product throughout the supply
chain. Demand planning processes are also being redesigned from the retail
perspective, and “retail reality” is incorporated in product design.Their delivery precision roadmap, includes a playbook of
prioritized initiatives, with executive sponsorship, including: demand/supply
matching, improving sales catalogue accuracy, streamlining distribution centre
operations, and optimizing processes globally. They have also created a
governance board that sets the strategies, prioritizes the initiatives and
drives company-wide execution based upon standardized processes and platforms (Kim and You, 2013).

Toyota, initially
Toyoda, is the global leader in the field of automobiles. It is a known fact
that Toyota cars have the highest resale values, which gives the company a
great brand image. Not only so, Toyota cars are known to be recognized all over
the world, irrespective of the prices that their cars boast of. Much like Nike,
Toyota also pays a lot of attention to the value that their band holds in the
eyes of their customers. With one of the most efficient supply chains in the
world, Nike pays a great deal of attention to the successful management of the
same (Rowland,
2015).

Although these two
companies always produce great quality products, it is not entirely possible to
monitor each of their products in a similar fashion. Therefore, this report
will take into consideration only the best of the best products that these two
companies have manufactured in the past years or so. For Nike, the product that
has been chosen is the Nike Lunar Epic Flyknit. For Toyota, the report will
shed light on the supply chain management of their Corolla model, which also
happens to be one of the most sold cars in the whole world.

In terms of Nike’s
supply chain, they have always focused on building one of the strongest supply
chains to ever exist in any market. However, on carefully studying Nike’s
supply chain, it becomes quite evident that the company has always tried to
follow to basic steps; focusing on renewable energy sources and the general
culture of sports that is generally associated to such sports brands. By making
use of such a strategy, Nike makes these subsidiaries an integral part of the
business organizations (Allen and Peloza, 2015). The outsourcing companies and distributors, in return, act as a
branch of Nike and focus on the company’s overall growth as well. Thus, to
summarize Nike’s overall design of the supply chain, it could be said that Nike
uses a strategy of flexibility with their outsourcing houses as well as their
distributors.

Toyota, on the other
hand, has a much more specific approach towards their supply chain. The
organization has identified three dimensions when it comes to formulating and
managing their supply chain. Those three areas or dimensions are geography,
product and time. By geography, the company means the various areas that they
cater to. It is a global brand, and therefore, Toyota makes use of extensive
research to understand how preferences and behaviours of the consumers change
from place to place. The company mainly focuses on the sturdiness and road
clearance when it comes to manufacturing and distributing cars in such areas.
Toyota uses the theory of contingency when it comes to developing and shaping
their supply chains. Since the needs of different customers are different,
Toyota recognizes that even their supply chains can’t be kept exempt from the
same (Torabi,
2017).. However, the main point of
difference amongst the two organizations is the high degree of customer
segmentation that comes into play in regard to their business operations.

Distribution and Logistics

The
distribution and logistics of the organization are quite effective enough
in  providing their products even to the
furthest ends  of the country. The
different resources have pointed out that Nike Inc. operates in more than 140
countries in the different parts of the world. Obviously catering to such a huge crowd means that Nike has to focus
greatly on its distribution channels. However, Nike has set yet another example
in this field. Till date, there is no third party logistics provider for Nike,
although the company has a strict third party outsourcing policy. This means
that Nike has completely used the concept of vertical integration when it comes
to manufacturing and distribution of their products; more so with their Lunar
Epic Flyknit. In terms of logistics solely, Nike uses a collaborative process
of third party outsourcing as well as maintaining relationships with their
distributors and their own logistics group. It will not be easy for Nike,
however, to function under such a competitive market that seems to grow by the
day (Almudena
et al., 2016)..

Toyota, being an
automobile manufacturer and distributor has always had to focus more on its
logistics department than its distributorships. The main reason for such an
outcome is the many changes that occur in the external environment of the
market that Toyota functions in. When Corolla was released, the
distributorships of Toyota faced almost no problems at all. However, there were
many discrepancies when it came to maintaining all records of sales, feedback,
etc. It is an obvious fact that Toyota’s market is more widespread than Nike,
and the same level of competence from the company is highly required in order
to maintain competitive advantage in an industry that has no limitations to
innovative approaches..

 The official statistics of the company also
reflect the same fat. Since the release of Corolla, back in 1966, the model has
sold over 20,000,000 units (Lund-Thomsen and Coe, 2013). It makes the model one of the highest sold automobile products ever;
a great feat, indeed. There is, however, ample scope for the company to do
better in its logistics department. In the fiscal year of 2004, Toyota showed
many irregularities when it came to paying their tax returns, which ended the
company’s run in many countries. An extensive investigation concluded that
Toyota had no record whatsoever of the Corolla units that were sold in the very
same year in their South Asian market. It should also be mentioned that Toyota
has had a problem when it came to a skilled workforce for their logistics
center. In the last decade or so, Toyota has upped their game however, and now lays
a much needed emphasis on their logistics department as well.

Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility

Nike
is one of the most sought after companies in the world when it comes to
sustainable functioning, irrespective of hich filed they function in. The approach
that Nike generally encompases in its many business operations is “sutainable
innovation”. This tagline just goes to show the emphasis that Nike lays on its
waste reduction and lower emission prtocols. However, to understand suatianle
innovation better, it is critical to have a clear knowledge iof How nke uses
the approach of sustainability to grow; both in sales as well as brand image.

Figure 1: Nike’s approach towards
waste reduction

(Source:
Garbelli,
2016)

The Flyknit technology
that has been used in the lunar epic flyknit, is said to be an epitome when it
comes to innovative sustainability. The technology is thought to reduce almost
60% waste production that generally arises from conventional cut and sew
methods. Statistically, this technology has reduced waste production by almost
3.5 million pounds, since the beginning of 2012 (Fayyaz et
al., 2017). The flyknit
technology however, uses zero water. This approach has saved more than 20
million liters of water. The most important aspect of Nike’s sustainable
innovation however, can be attributed to the company’s high regard for reuse.
Since 2010, the company has recycled almost three billion plastic bottles to
manufacture the polyester that they use to make shoes.

CSR or the
Corporate Social Responsibilities is something that needs to be considered by
the big organizations like Nike Inc. to create a good and effective image of
the brand in the market. As noted by Newell, (2015) the CSR responsibilities are something that helps the organizations to
create a good and effective social image in the market. There are certain
Social Responsibilities that each and every organization needs to perform and
Nike also adopts suitable and effective steps for ensuring an effective image
in the society. There are actually a number of CSR activities that are
undertaken by Nike in this regard.

Figure 2: Toyota’s approach
towards sustainability

(Source:
Thompson,
2015)

On the contrary, Toyota
believes that business responsibilities or sustainability is as important as
sales for their company. They have always asserted the fact that revenue is
very important for them being able to meet the many challenges that they face
when it comes to fulfilling their CSR duties (Lueg et
al., 2015). These approaches
are Reactive, proactive, predictive and influencing. The reactive approach
means that Toyota makes a one-time donation to address a social issue and the
proactive approach lets the company meet social requirements by empowering all
weak areas within an area. However, Toyota believes that the Predictive
approach works best for them as it lets the company look into the aspects of
education and other behavioral trends that exists within a market.

 Thus it can be clearly
estimated from the above discussions that both Nike and Toyota concentrates much
on adopting suitable and effective CSR policies for ensuring a good image of
the organization in the market. It can be clearly estimated that while Nike
concentrates much on innovation and sustainability, Toyota concentrates on
providing revenues and donations to those in need of it. It concentrates much
on defining social activities as part of their Corporate Social
Responsibilities.

Importance of quality

At Nike, the
organization concentrates much on providing quality products to the different
customers   of the organization. They
consider  providing best quality  products to the employees as the only way of
creating a good and  effective customer
bases of  the organization.

Nike has always
implemented total quality management to maintain a certain standard in their
quality. The huge crowd, that Nike caters to has always prompted the company to
function with utmost regard to quality of their products. This is also one of
the leading factors that have put Nike in the position that they currently hold
in the market. However, if the study looks into this aspect of Nike and digs a
little deeper, it can be easily found out that Nike has always implemented a
strategically sound method to maintain their quality throughout their
functioning. Strategic Quality Planning enables Nike to not only look after the
quality of their products, but also helps the company to meet their social
outlooks. By reducing waste production and decreasing the CO2 emission, Nike
has been able to incorporate their quality management with their CSR duties as
well.

Toyota, no doubt, is a
company which is far ahead of Nike in implementing quality management. Regular
crash testing of their vehicles is something that Toyota implements in their everyday
functioning. This enables the company to not only meet their standards, but
also keep in line with the various government policies that exist in terms of
safety features in a car. Toyota uses different strategies when it comes to
maintaining a high standard for both the exterior and interior of their
vehicles. It could very easily state that Toyota is one of the leading
companies in the whole world to keep in line with the various measures of
quality management that exist in the world of automobiles (Lu et al., 2017). Thus,
Toyota’s quality management is not just an operational function but it is also
something that is regulated by law.

Conclusion

This study has shed
light on the various factors that have prompted the rise of Nike and Toyota
when it comes to their respective fields of business. Nike’s use of innovative
sustainability and Toyota’s four step approach towards meeting the social
responsibilities of their businesses have been described in detail. The
strategies and the techniques that these two leading companies use to promote
their business as well as their brands have been discussed in detail. The study
has used information from all credible sources. All suggestions aimed at
improving the study are welcome.

 

References

Allen, A.M. and Peloza, J., 2015. Someone to watch over me:
The integration of privacy and corporate social responsibility. Business
Horizons, 58(6), pp.635-642.

Almudena, C.M., Montefalcone, M., Bavestrello, G., Cau, A.,
Nike, C., Bianchi, C.M., Canese, S. and Bo, M., 2016. To appear in: Continental
Shelf Research.

Fayyaz, A., Lund-Thomsen, P. and Lindgreen, A., 2017.
Industrial clusters and CSR in developing countries: the role of international
donor funding. Journal of Business Ethics, 146(3),
pp.619-637.

Garbelli, M., 2016. Managing Sustainability to Be First: The
Toyota Case. In Business Challenges in the Changing Economic
Landscape-Vol. 2 (pp. 41-54). Springer, Cham.

Kim, P. and You, J., 2013. Strategic CSR through Innovation
and Top Management Team Decision Making: Evidence from Eco-Friendly Automobile
IndustryCase Analyse. Journal of Advanced Management Science, 1(4).

Lu, X., Liu, H.W. and Rahman, M., 2017. The impact of
corporate social responsibility on customer loyalty: a case of Nike and Adidas
in China. Strategic Change.

Lueg, R., Pedersen, M.M. and Clemmensen, S.N., 2015. The role
of corporate sustainability in a low?cost business model–A case study in the Scandinavian fashion
industry. Business Strategy and the Environment, 24(5),
pp.344-359.

Lund-Thomsen, P. and Coe, N., 2013. CSR and labor
agency: The case of Nike in Pakistan. Working Paper, 3/2013, Center for
Corporate Social Responsibility, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen.

McDonnell, M.H., King, B.G. and Soule, S.A., 2015. A dynamic
process model of private politics: Activist targeting and corporate receptivity
to social challenges. American Sociological Review, 80(3),
pp.654-678.

Newell, A., 2015. How Nike Embraced CSR and Went From Villain
to Hero. Triple Pundit, pp.1-2.

Rowland, C., 2015. Toyota’s Stakeholders: A CSR
Analysis. Business Management, Sept, 24.

Thompson, A., 2015. Toyota’s generic strategy and intensive
growth strategies. Retrieved April, 27, p.2016.

Torabi, S., 2017. Corporate Social Responsibility Motivations:
How Audiences Respond to a Company’s 

Introduction

In today’s market
where the general competitiveness of the market is quite high, all
organizations have to pay good attention to their supply chains. The
consumption of a product or service depends highly on how efficiently the
organization is able to manage their supply chains. A supply chain is defined
as the collection of processes, individuals and other co-related groups that
concern themselves with the successful deliveries of products or services,
based on their business market. An effective supply chain always makes sure of
the fact that their product or service is most easily available to the
consumers. This report will shed light on the various aspects of supply chain
management as well as the corporate social responsibility of the two largest organizations
in the respective fields of sportswear and automobiles; Nike and Toyota.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

Overall design of the supply chains

Nike, being the
world’s largest and most well-known sports brand has had to pay a lot of
attention to the quality of their products. This enables them to function with
utmost regard for the products that they sell, keeping in mind the various
ethical as well as social concerns of the same. The product
of Nike may include the different men and women shoes. It has been estimated
that the products of Nike are able to attract more number of customers towards
themselves. The shoes that are manufactured by the organization are quite
effective enough in fulfilling the needs of the customers.  There are a number of resources that have
pointed out that the quality is something that Nike assures in all the products
that are produced by them.  However to
attract more number of customers towards themselves, the organization have also
added a number of products to the product line of the organization.

A few of
them may include dresses, gears. The supply chain management of the organization
is  also quite effective in this regard.Nike, selling $9 billion worth of athletic shoes
annually, does so without owning any factories itself, performance, and
reducing claims and cancellations to lower inventory holding costs. Focused on
actual point-of-sale demand, processes are being transformed from the retail
shelf backwards, to achieve a leveled flow of product throughout the supply
chain. Demand planning processes are also being redesigned from the retail
perspective, and “retail reality” is incorporated in product design.Their delivery precision roadmap, includes a playbook of
prioritized initiatives, with executive sponsorship, including: demand/supply
matching, improving sales catalogue accuracy, streamlining distribution centre
operations, and optimizing processes globally. They have also created a
governance board that sets the strategies, prioritizes the initiatives and
drives company-wide execution based upon standardized processes and platforms (Kim and You, 2013).

Toyota, initially
Toyoda, is the global leader in the field of automobiles. It is a known fact
that Toyota cars have the highest resale values, which gives the company a
great brand image. Not only so, Toyota cars are known to be recognized all over
the world, irrespective of the prices that their cars boast of. Much like Nike,
Toyota also pays a lot of attention to the value that their band holds in the
eyes of their customers. With one of the most efficient supply chains in the
world, Nike pays a great deal of attention to the successful management of the
same (Rowland,
2015).

Although these two
companies always produce great quality products, it is not entirely possible to
monitor each of their products in a similar fashion. Therefore, this report
will take into consideration only the best of the best products that these two
companies have manufactured in the past years or so. For Nike, the product that
has been chosen is the Nike Lunar Epic Flyknit. For Toyota, the report will
shed light on the supply chain management of their Corolla model, which also
happens to be one of the most sold cars in the whole world.

In terms of Nike’s
supply chain, they have always focused on building one of the strongest supply
chains to ever exist in any market. However, on carefully studying Nike’s
supply chain, it becomes quite evident that the company has always tried to
follow to basic steps; focusing on renewable energy sources and the general
culture of sports that is generally associated to such sports brands. By making
use of such a strategy, Nike makes these subsidiaries an integral part of the
business organizations (Allen and Peloza, 2015). The outsourcing companies and distributors, in return, act as a
branch of Nike and focus on the company’s overall growth as well. Thus, to
summarize Nike’s overall design of the supply chain, it could be said that Nike
uses a strategy of flexibility with their outsourcing houses as well as their
distributors.

Toyota, on the other
hand, has a much more specific approach towards their supply chain. The
organization has identified three dimensions when it comes to formulating and
managing their supply chain. Those three areas or dimensions are geography,
product and time. By geography, the company means the various areas that they
cater to. It is a global brand, and therefore, Toyota makes use of extensive
research to understand how preferences and behaviours of the consumers change
from place to place. The company mainly focuses on the sturdiness and road
clearance when it comes to manufacturing and distributing cars in such areas.
Toyota uses the theory of contingency when it comes to developing and shaping
their supply chains. Since the needs of different customers are different,
Toyota recognizes that even their supply chains can’t be kept exempt from the
same (Torabi,
2017).. However, the main point of
difference amongst the two organizations is the high degree of customer
segmentation that comes into play in regard to their business operations.

Distribution and Logistics

The
distribution and logistics of the organization are quite effective enough
in  providing their products even to the
furthest ends  of the country. The
different resources have pointed out that Nike Inc. operates in more than 140
countries in the different parts of the world. Obviously catering to such a huge crowd means that Nike has to focus
greatly on its distribution channels. However, Nike has set yet another example
in this field. Till date, there is no third party logistics provider for Nike,
although the company has a strict third party outsourcing policy. This means
that Nike has completely used the concept of vertical integration when it comes
to manufacturing and distribution of their products; more so with their Lunar
Epic Flyknit. In terms of logistics solely, Nike uses a collaborative process
of third party outsourcing as well as maintaining relationships with their
distributors and their own logistics group. It will not be easy for Nike,
however, to function under such a competitive market that seems to grow by the
day (Almudena
et al., 2016)..

Toyota, being an
automobile manufacturer and distributor has always had to focus more on its
logistics department than its distributorships. The main reason for such an
outcome is the many changes that occur in the external environment of the
market that Toyota functions in. When Corolla was released, the
distributorships of Toyota faced almost no problems at all. However, there were
many discrepancies when it came to maintaining all records of sales, feedback,
etc. It is an obvious fact that Toyota’s market is more widespread than Nike,
and the same level of competence from the company is highly required in order
to maintain competitive advantage in an industry that has no limitations to
innovative approaches..

 The official statistics of the company also
reflect the same fat. Since the release of Corolla, back in 1966, the model has
sold over 20,000,000 units (Lund-Thomsen and Coe, 2013). It makes the model one of the highest sold automobile products ever;
a great feat, indeed. There is, however, ample scope for the company to do
better in its logistics department. In the fiscal year of 2004, Toyota showed
many irregularities when it came to paying their tax returns, which ended the
company’s run in many countries. An extensive investigation concluded that
Toyota had no record whatsoever of the Corolla units that were sold in the very
same year in their South Asian market. It should also be mentioned that Toyota
has had a problem when it came to a skilled workforce for their logistics
center. In the last decade or so, Toyota has upped their game however, and now lays
a much needed emphasis on their logistics department as well.

Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility

Nike
is one of the most sought after companies in the world when it comes to
sustainable functioning, irrespective of hich filed they function in. The approach
that Nike generally encompases in its many business operations is “sutainable
innovation”. This tagline just goes to show the emphasis that Nike lays on its
waste reduction and lower emission prtocols. However, to understand suatianle
innovation better, it is critical to have a clear knowledge iof How nke uses
the approach of sustainability to grow; both in sales as well as brand image.

Figure 1: Nike’s approach towards
waste reduction

(Source:
Garbelli,
2016)

The Flyknit technology
that has been used in the lunar epic flyknit, is said to be an epitome when it
comes to innovative sustainability. The technology is thought to reduce almost
60% waste production that generally arises from conventional cut and sew
methods. Statistically, this technology has reduced waste production by almost
3.5 million pounds, since the beginning of 2012 (Fayyaz et
al., 2017). The flyknit
technology however, uses zero water. This approach has saved more than 20
million liters of water. The most important aspect of Nike’s sustainable
innovation however, can be attributed to the company’s high regard for reuse.
Since 2010, the company has recycled almost three billion plastic bottles to
manufacture the polyester that they use to make shoes.

CSR or the
Corporate Social Responsibilities is something that needs to be considered by
the big organizations like Nike Inc. to create a good and effective image of
the brand in the market. As noted by Newell, (2015) the CSR responsibilities are something that helps the organizations to
create a good and effective social image in the market. There are certain
Social Responsibilities that each and every organization needs to perform and
Nike also adopts suitable and effective steps for ensuring an effective image
in the society. There are actually a number of CSR activities that are
undertaken by Nike in this regard.

Figure 2: Toyota’s approach
towards sustainability

(Source:
Thompson,
2015)

On the contrary, Toyota
believes that business responsibilities or sustainability is as important as
sales for their company. They have always asserted the fact that revenue is
very important for them being able to meet the many challenges that they face
when it comes to fulfilling their CSR duties (Lueg et
al., 2015). These approaches
are Reactive, proactive, predictive and influencing. The reactive approach
means that Toyota makes a one-time donation to address a social issue and the
proactive approach lets the company meet social requirements by empowering all
weak areas within an area. However, Toyota believes that the Predictive
approach works best for them as it lets the company look into the aspects of
education and other behavioral trends that exists within a market.

 Thus it can be clearly
estimated from the above discussions that both Nike and Toyota concentrates much
on adopting suitable and effective CSR policies for ensuring a good image of
the organization in the market. It can be clearly estimated that while Nike
concentrates much on innovation and sustainability, Toyota concentrates on
providing revenues and donations to those in need of it. It concentrates much
on defining social activities as part of their Corporate Social
Responsibilities.

Importance of quality

At Nike, the
organization concentrates much on providing quality products to the different
customers   of the organization. They
consider  providing best quality  products to the employees as the only way of
creating a good and  effective customer
bases of  the organization.

Nike has always
implemented total quality management to maintain a certain standard in their
quality. The huge crowd, that Nike caters to has always prompted the company to
function with utmost regard to quality of their products. This is also one of
the leading factors that have put Nike in the position that they currently hold
in the market. However, if the study looks into this aspect of Nike and digs a
little deeper, it can be easily found out that Nike has always implemented a
strategically sound method to maintain their quality throughout their
functioning. Strategic Quality Planning enables Nike to not only look after the
quality of their products, but also helps the company to meet their social
outlooks. By reducing waste production and decreasing the CO2 emission, Nike
has been able to incorporate their quality management with their CSR duties as
well.

Toyota, no doubt, is a
company which is far ahead of Nike in implementing quality management. Regular
crash testing of their vehicles is something that Toyota implements in their everyday
functioning. This enables the company to not only meet their standards, but
also keep in line with the various government policies that exist in terms of
safety features in a car. Toyota uses different strategies when it comes to
maintaining a high standard for both the exterior and interior of their
vehicles. It could very easily state that Toyota is one of the leading
companies in the whole world to keep in line with the various measures of
quality management that exist in the world of automobiles (Lu et al., 2017). Thus,
Toyota’s quality management is not just an operational function but it is also
something that is regulated by law.

Conclusion

This study has shed
light on the various factors that have prompted the rise of Nike and Toyota
when it comes to their respective fields of business. Nike’s use of innovative
sustainability and Toyota’s four step approach towards meeting the social
responsibilities of their businesses have been described in detail. The
strategies and the techniques that these two leading companies use to promote
their business as well as their brands have been discussed in detail. The study
has used information from all credible sources. All suggestions aimed at
improving the study are welcome.

 

References

Allen, A.M. and Peloza, J., 2015. Someone to watch over me:
The integration of privacy and corporate social responsibility. Business
Horizons, 58(6), pp.635-642.

Almudena, C.M., Montefalcone, M., Bavestrello, G., Cau, A.,
Nike, C., Bianchi, C.M., Canese, S. and Bo, M., 2016. To appear in: Continental
Shelf Research.

Fayyaz, A., Lund-Thomsen, P. and Lindgreen, A., 2017.
Industrial clusters and CSR in developing countries: the role of international
donor funding. Journal of Business Ethics, 146(3),
pp.619-637.

Garbelli, M., 2016. Managing Sustainability to Be First: The
Toyota Case. In Business Challenges in the Changing Economic
Landscape-Vol. 2 (pp. 41-54). Springer, Cham.

Kim, P. and You, J., 2013. Strategic CSR through Innovation
and Top Management Team Decision Making: Evidence from Eco-Friendly Automobile
IndustryCase Analyse. Journal of Advanced Management Science, 1(4).

Lu, X., Liu, H.W. and Rahman, M., 2017. The impact of
corporate social responsibility on customer loyalty: a case of Nike and Adidas
in China. Strategic Change.

Lueg, R., Pedersen, M.M. and Clemmensen, S.N., 2015. The role
of corporate sustainability in a low?cost business model–A case study in the Scandinavian fashion
industry. Business Strategy and the Environment, 24(5),
pp.344-359.

Lund-Thomsen, P. and Coe, N., 2013. CSR and labor
agency: The case of Nike in Pakistan. Working Paper, 3/2013, Center for
Corporate Social Responsibility, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen.

McDonnell, M.H., King, B.G. and Soule, S.A., 2015. A dynamic
process model of private politics: Activist targeting and corporate receptivity
to social challenges. American Sociological Review, 80(3),
pp.654-678.

Newell, A., 2015. How Nike Embraced CSR and Went From Villain
to Hero. Triple Pundit, pp.1-2.

Rowland, C., 2015. Toyota’s Stakeholders: A CSR
Analysis. Business Management, Sept, 24.

Thompson, A., 2015. Toyota’s generic strategy and intensive
growth strategies. Retrieved April, 27, p.2016.

Torabi, S., 2017. Corporate Social Responsibility Motivations:
How Audiences Respond to a Company’s 

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I'm Elaine!

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