Introduction: motor. This process generates a lot of

Introduction:The world has many engines and cars that pose adanger because they cause a lot of pollution and greenhouse gases.

Havingefficient green cars can help engines and cars run efficiently and help reducemany dangerous impacts on this world. This will help us learn about environmental-friendlytechnologies that have been made from the past and will continue to be made inthe future for a safe environment. Therefore, we as humans should help topromote in making new automotive technologies that will create success in ourworld for a better living in terms of transportations and reducing globalwarming and pollution from gas emissions in the atmosphere.                                       Report: Hybrid:            Hybrid vehicles use twoor more distinct types of powers, which includes internal combustion enginesand using diesel engines. The both include electric generators that both powerthe electric motors. Many hybrids have much advanced technologies. Those technologiesare regenerative braking in which it recaptures energy that is normally lostduring the braking.

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It uses forward motion of wheels to turn the motor. Thisprocess generates a lot of hybrid electricity and it helps to slow down thevehicle. The other technology is electric motor drive which provides power toassist the engine in acceleration, passing, and hill climbing. The lasttechnology is automatic start/stop, in which it automatically shuts down theengine when the vehicle comes to a stop and restarts it when the accelerator ispressed. This immensely reduces the waste generated from the idling.

 Types of Hybrids:·        FullHybrids – more efficient, canautomatically choose to operate in series mode, parallel mode, and all-electricmode.·        MildHybrid – it is typically asefficient as a full hybrid but is limited to parallel mode. ·        Plug-InHybrid – have largerbatteries, and run on all-electric mode.  Advantages:·        EnvironmentallyFriendly: Hybrid cars runcleaner and has better gas mileage which makes it environmentally friendly.

 ·        FinancialBenefits: Hybrid cars aresupported by many credits that help to make them affordable. Lower annual taxbills and charges comes in the form of less amount of money spent on the fuel. ·        Builtfrom Light Materials: Hybridvehicles are made up of much lighter materials containing inside of them inwhich they would require less energy to run.

In addition, the engine is alsosmaller and lighter which results in a good thing, it saves a lot of energy. ·        HigherResale Value: Hybrid vehiclesstarted to gain a lot higher than average resale values. Therefore, it issignificantly helping to control people’s budget as gas prices go higher. Italso reduces fossil fuels and lowers carbon footprint which is efficient forthe environment.

 Disadvantages:·        LessPower: Since hybrid cars havea range of twin powered cars, the gasoline engine inside of them is a lotsmaller than a regular single powered engine. That is because they are suitedfor city driving and not for speed.  ·        Poorer Handling: Components inside the car add weight andbreak up the extra space. The weight is fuel efficient but if there is noweight then the motor and better downsize which makes less support on thesuspensions and body of car. ·        Presenceof High Voltage in Batteries:In case if there is an accident in any way, the high voltage in the batteriescan cause a high chance of anyone getting electrocuted and it will be difficultto get out of the car.   Steam Engine:             A steam engine is basically a heat engine inwhich it performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluids. Steamengines would be classified as external combustion engines where all the fluidsare separated from all the combustion products. There are a process and cyclethat works for steam engines.

Firstly, water is heated and then transforms intosteam in a boiler that operates and runs at a high pressure. When the steam isexpanded through the pistons, a lot of mechanical work is being done where thereduced pressure steam then exhausts into the atmosphere, and then through thatprocess it goes back into the boiler. Boilers are basically pressure vesselsthat store all the water that is needed for boiling, it transfers heat to waterjust like boiling.  Two Methods of Transferring Heatto Water:·        Water-TubeBoiler: water that is storedin and runs through many tubes which are covered by hot gases around it.

 ·        Fire-TubeBoiler: water which ispartially filled inside vessels just like a combustion chamber/furnace and firetubes through where the hot gases are flowing.  Types of Steam Engines:·        RotarySteam Engines: simpleone-cylinder steam engine. Makes piston help rotate the wheel. ·        ReciprocatingSteam Engines: help pump waterout of the flooded coal mines back in the early 1800s. ·        Single-ActingSteam Engines: Pushes pistonsending in two different ways using steam and the piston is usually beingpowered only half the time.   ·        Double-ActingSteam Engines: It uses extrasteam pipes and valves to help push around the piston in different ways usingthe power of steam. But in this type of steam engine, steam powers it all thetime.

 Advantages:·        It can belocated anywhere because the water is heated or boiled in a different andseparate boiler to produce the steam ·        Steamengines have so much power that their more powerful than wind-mills.  ·        They canuse any combustible materials such as wood, coal, oil in which these all givethe engine power as they are burned like a fire place.  ·        The combustiblematerials contained are much cheaper today than what they used to be back inthe 1900’s.             Disadvantages:·        The costfor the parts and the engine itself is very costly ·        Theengines don’t start as quickly because it takes a while to start burning upcoal.

 ·        Steamengines have low efficiency because the engine only heats 20% energy into work. ·        There is arisk of a severe injury because the boiler is fired by high intense pressureand that may cause a fire hazard. ·        A steamengine isn’t fully environmentally friendly because it involves working withfossil fuels which cause global warming. Therefore, it wouldn’t be an efficientsource to use.  Solar Energy Vehicle:            Solar energy vehicles are electric vehiclesthat are completely powered by the direct solar energy that is received fromthe sun.

Which is in a very efficient manner. There are Photovoltaic Cells(PVC) that are inside of solar panels, and they use and convert the sun’sdirect energy into electric energy for the vehicle to run. In many cases,photovoltaic modules are used in terms of auxiliary power units on my solarcars but mainly on passenger cars.

The photovoltaic cells are made up of manysemi-conductors where they create a flow for the electrons. That flow helps togenerate electricity to power up the battery. That would run the vehicle’smotor to run the car. In some cases, they don’t have batteries because somesolar vehicles can direct the power from the sun straight to the electricmotor.  Advantages:·        Eco-Friendly: Solar-powered vehicles have no emission leveland they don’t need non-renewable resources that burn fuel. Therefore, theydon’t release greenhouse gases or other types of pollution. Its all efficient. ·        EnergyAvailability: Since solar carsget their energy from the sun, it will always provide with endless energy thatnever last.

 ·        No FuelCosts: Unlike other fueledvehicles, solar vehicles have no fuels costs and if there is any damage, thenthe maintenance is also at a minimum low cost. ·        DrivingComfort: Since solar-poweredcars have components such as aluminum and other lightweight components, theyrun a lot faster and smoothly than other vehicles that have diesel engines.  Disadvantages:·        DesignLayout: Solar vehicles need abig area on the roof where the solar panels can be held, they have low windresistance and can hold a max of 2 passengers inside. ·        PoorPracticality: These green carsdon’t have the required diving safety features and equipment’s like normal carsdo these days. Solar vehicles don’t have wiper blades, headlights and rearmirrors. Also, many other components that must also be taken care of issuspensions, steering, brakes, secured panels and arranged batteries.

 ·        ExpensiveBatteries: Solar panels andtheir batteries are extremely costly, and it must be reduced. ·        EnergyStorage Capacity: Thephotovoltaic cells convert a less percentage of sunlight into electricity. Theyonly make use of 15-30% which is minimum to what it really should be.              Hydrogen Fuel Cells:                        Hydrogen fuel cells use hydrogen gas to powerup their electric motor.

Which is different from conventional cars because theyrun on gasoline and diesel. A fuel cell car combines and mixes hydrogen andoxygen to produce electricity for the car to run the motor. Therefore, fuelcell vehicles are known as Electric Vehicles (EV). A fuel cell produces electricityfrom a chemical reaction without combustion. Therefore, the car produces notoxins, greenhouse gases, or any particles so it is guaranteed an efficientcar. Advantages:·        Availableand Renewable: A largeabundance of these types of cars. Hydrogen can’t run out unlike other fossilfuels or non-renewable resources.  ·        Non-Toxic: Energy sources that we use nowadays are a lotmore in percentage of having toxins and harmful side effects, hydrogen fuelcells don’t pose any risk to the environment and are completely non-toxic.

 ·        VeryPowerful: These fuel cells arepowerful compared to many other sources. They are so powerful that they arefueled inside of rockets that go into space.  ·        NoContribution to Climate Change:Hydrogen fuels sells emit no greenhouse gases. Other non-renewable resourcesemit greenhouse emissions which makes fuels cells a lot more efficient.

 ·        Cheap Maintenance: Hydrogen fuel cells are affordable formaintenance.   Disadvantages: ·        FossilFuels Still Required: Toseparate hydrogen and oxygen atoms and to make hydrogen fuel, fossil fuels arerequired. If there are no fossil fuels, hydrogen energy wouldn’t be produced.  ·        Costlyto Produce: Expensive forsetup. To make hydrogen energy that would always require to be in a costly way.  ·        Flammable: Hydrogen fuel cells may not be toxic, butthey are flammable. Hydrogen can catch fire easily and has a chance to explode.That would be risky for the environment.

  Compressed Air:            The compressed-airvehicles (CAV) are powered from an air engine by using compressed air. That airis stored in a tank. Instead of mixing fuel with air and burning it to drivethe pistons, compressed-air vehicles use compressed air itself to drive thepistons. Compressed air has been used since the 19th century topower up mine locomotives.             How the compressed air car works?·        Air carshave compressors built in them·        Compressoruses air around the car to refill the compressed air tank, but this will take along time to refill.

Approximately 2 hours.·        There arealso refueling stations that help refill the compressors. It will take around 2minutes to refill.·        These carsuse a Compressed Air Engine (CAE) which helps the tanks hold the compressedair.·        Theaccelerators of the vehicle open a valve that is located on the tank to let theair get out and release into a pipe which then goes into the engine.·        Thepressure makes the push against the pistons to turn the crankshaft.·        Therefore,this will produce a lot of power for the speed  Advantages:·        Itrequires no gasoline used·        Theproduction cost is very less because they don’t need any cooling system orspark plugs·        Reducedhazardous chemicals such as gasoline and battery acids·        Emits nopollution·        Low costsand very fuel efficient Disadvantages:·        Have avery limited storage capacity for the air tank·        A tankthat has a value of 30MPA of compressed air in tank is risky and hazardous. ·        Peoplemust keep refilling their tanks after a while which wastes a lot of their time  Magnetic Levitation:            Magnetic Levitation isknown as Maglev and it is a system that is used mainly for trains until now.

Trains use two sets of magnets, one pushes the train up off the track as oflevitation, and the other one moves the train in great speed and motion which requiresno friction to it. The technology that is used for Maglev requires no movingparts contained to it and it helps the train swish through the magnets whichcontrols the train’s speed and the stability motion.  Two Types of Maglev Technology:·        ElectromagneticSuspension (EMS): They arecontrolled electromagnets by using it electronically to make sure the train isconnected well to the track. ·        ElectrodynamicSuspension (EDS): Use betterconductors of electromagnets and permanent magnets to create a magnetic field,because of that, it captures nearby currents that push the train the way itgoes.            Advantages:·        Help savelots of money because it requires little maintenance·        Amazinglyefficient because there is no friction between them·        Pollutionfree and run electricity on solar, wind, and renewable resources.  ·        Trains area lot faster in terms of speed and when the train goes from one point toanother, it makes no noise unlike other modes of transportation. Disadvantages:·        Thestart-up costs are expensive, and it can take years to pay off an amount ·        Trains useup a lot of energy. The larger the train is, the more energy consumption itwill have and tougher to levitate around places.

 ·        Since thetrains are going at a fast speed, there are risks of incidents occurring forhumans.   Comparison:1.   HybridIn my opinion, I found hybrid vehicles as themost efficient out of the 6 green sources. This is because hybrid cars have alot ore advantages than disadvantages and are a lot more useful. For example, ahybrid car has a lot more advanced technology than other vehicles and sourcessuch as regenerative braking, electric motor drive and automatic start/stop.

Ifound these technologies very useful that a car should include. Also, it has 2distinct types of power engines in it where it can be perfect for the cars thatuse each type of engine. Therefore, a hybrid car would be the most useful.

 2.   SolarIn my opinion, a solar vehicle would be secondon my list because this type of source is known for being most efficientbecause it uses the sun’s energy to power up the car and drive. Also, it releasesno pollution or greenhouse gases and has endless energy that will never last.The reason I chose this to be second instead of the hybrid vehicle is becausethis can only hold up to 2 passengers and it only gives a small percentage ofenergy to the car using PVC.  3.   Magnetic LevitationIn my opinion, the option for magneticlevitation would be my 3rd best because this has a lot of advancedtechnology benefits to it. It helps the train work out perfectly to make itmove and keep it guiding on the track using the best possible and efficienttechnology. It uses EMS and EDS which are both advanced technologies.

It causesno harm to the environment in any way and can get a human from one place to theother in the fastest time. I chose this 3rd over solar and hybridbecause this source is only usable for trains at this moment, they may make itfor vehicles in the future. Another cause is that this source uses a lot ofenergy. But overall, it is a great source for the environment.  4.   Hydrogen Fuel CellIn my opinion, a hydrogen fuel cell vehiclewould be my fourth best option on the list because this source can be veryreliable at many times.

These type of fuel cells use only hydrogen and oxygento help power up the car which are very reliable sources found in our atmosphereand are here always. Hydrogen fuel cells don’t emit any pollution, greenhousegases or impact our climate. This source is the most powerful out of theothers. But I would prefer solar, hybrid and maglev vehicles over this onebecause although this uses no fossil fuels, it only requires fossil fuels tobreak up the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Also, since this source is powerful, itis very expensive.  5.

   Compressed Air In my opinion, compressed air should be 5thbest in the list because although it isn’t the best, it has many good sides toit rather than bad sides. Compressed Air is basically the natural air used todrive the pistons. That would be better than mixing it with fuel. There is nopollution and the best part is it requires no gasoline for the car.

There arestations where people can refill their tank. But the only reason I would preferthis 5th after the other sources is because the tank runs outquickly and filling it is a waste of time, another problem is that if thecapacity of the compressed air passes 30MPA it can be a huge risk factor forthe vehicle and people around it.  6.   Steam EngineIn my opinion, I found this last amongst the 6sources because it has a lot of side effects to the environment more than benefits.

Steam engines use heat energy to operate the engine using hot water. The steamthat is generated helps the pistons move. Although steam engines are powerfuland have many types of them, I find them harmful to the environment. They arecostly, they take a long time to start up, they aren’t that efficient, theypose a severe injury of fire hazard and causes a lot of greenhouse gases to theenvironment because they burn fossil fuels.     Conclusion:            Globalwarming and pollution have made the environment look like a hazardous place.With the help of many technologies and efficient vehicles, there can be a hugereduction in greenhouse gases and these can make the environment a much better,safer and green place.

There are many technologies that help us now, but webelieve that there will be even better ones in the future to help get rid ofglobal warming forever. This “Green Car Project” has helped us learn about thegreen sources deeply in detail about our vehicles and how they can be efficientfor our environment. Therefore, I am glad we did this assignment, it hasbenefited us in many factors.  


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