Introduction This chapter will review the literatureof the present study on how racial and genderedidentities explain the leadership development of Asian-American women. The study will look at problems and obstaclesencountered by Asian-American women thatsubstantially developed in their careers. In general, much of research onleadership development of women and minorities overlook the distinct dualism and occurrences faced by these women. A lack of research impacted the needfor literary analysis on the leadership development of Asian-American women asthey advanced to leading positions. Understandingthe lived experiences of these Asian-American women can familiarize the ascendencyto leadership.
Representationof WomenOver the last few years, the quantityof literature on women’s leadership has enhanced; but, hardly any studiesexplore leadership development of Asian-American women in leadership positions.A great deal of the literature has been partial to the typical perspectives ofleadership. Specifically, a majorityof the research focused on leadership characteristics implemented by non-coloredmales in organizations. The writtenwork filled with research on the distinction among male and female personalitythat are usually connected with leadership (Cha & Weeden,2014).
Ghafoor,Qureshi, Khan, and Hijazi (2011) pointedout that, transformational leadership places an importance on socialism and liberation. Transformationalleadership has been associated to the leadership style of women of color (Huang,Iun, Liu, 2010).Compared to men, women considerablylinger behind in regards to leadership positions and this difference is even greaterfor women of color (Warner & Corly, 2017). Warner and Corly(2017) further mentioned that only 38 percent of women of color held higher leadershippositions. Merely 23percent of businesses are headed by a women CEO, moreover, 4.6 percent of those business’ board seats are takenby women. (Peck, 2015). Center forAmerican Women and Politics (2017) provides information that there have been only 39 women governors in the history of United States and none of them have been women of color; until the first coloredwoman served as governor in the United States territory of Puerto Rico in 2001to 2005.
Jaschik (2008) reported just 23 percent of women were college presidents compared to 90.5percent and 79 percent of non-colored malesin chief executive officer positions.Furthermore, only 16 percent of chief executives reported in a non-profitorganization were women (Jaschik,2008).
Heilman & Okimoto (2007) specifiedthat discrimination for women lingersin many professions. Women comeacross inequity concerning their rank,as well as the potential for advancement(Yogeeswaran & Dasgupta, 2010). Catalyst (2017) revealed differences in pay, werefull time women in a position of management weekly median income was $1,027, comparedto $1,420 for men. There is an increase of women of color in the workforce; however,the lack of power and influence to leadership ranks at the higher level persist. Despitehaving job experience and a graduate degree, this division of the populationcontinues to be overlooked during promotions and is underpaid (Catalyst, 2011; Fisher,2015). Women continue to struggle with the battle of hurdles known as the glassceiling.
The glass ceiling is an unseenobservable fact that has been the topic of explorationfor some time (Prasad,2008). Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Phelan, and Nauts (2012) explained that the main impediment women encountered was men atthe leading positions who considered it awkward that women were working next tothem. On the other hand, White,Rumsey, and Amidson (2016) referredto the glass ceiling as see-through yet actual barricades, centered on biasedoutlooks that obstruct capableindividuals consisting of women, racial minorities, and disabled from moving forward to higherpositions. The glass ceiling is defined as an indefinable hindrance founded byorganizational partiality that prohibited experienced individuals fromachieving advanced positions (Shambaugh, 2008).Several clarifications have been put forward as a basis of argumentregarding women from reaching leadership positions. Corcoran (2008) mentioned women probablymight not be hopeful for high-ranking posts as they do not know that leadershippositions are approachable for them.
Additionally,women can be dispirited by seniors from following these positions, otherwisemay not be in the suitable rank when progression is made (Brezinski, 2012).Even though few numbers of studies havebeen on women of color in leadership positions, they usually concentratedon hurdles to equal opportunity, along with the limitation of career development for minority women opposed to paying attention onindividual experiences (Cha & Weeden,2014). Moreover, the research most of the time includes howminority women lead within primarily non-colored organizations and therefore,do not provide a perception of leadership advancement. Consequently, there is a noticeable lack of research on how Asian-Americanwomen experience leadership and grow as leaders. For that purpose, it may facilitate our understanding to identify thetransformations of leadership in organizations and develop theoretical frameworks that are appropriate to these recognized groups (Huang et al., 2010). LeadershipDevelopmentLeadership can be defined in various ways.
A leaderwith valuable characteristics is determined to achieve something, along withhaving the capability to apply judge worthy opinion. These types of leaders canbe ambitious in succeeding without stopping or giving up (Ryan, 2009). Thedefinition of a good leader may be an individual with a common sense of responsibility,and the need for importance towards a project (Ryan, 2009). Traditionally,the customarily defined representation of leadership has been outshined by men.Northouse (2010) implied that with no control over others, leadership could notsurvive.In talking about leadership, the analysisof leadership have apparently presumedideas of white-middle-class men as the crucialgroup for considering leadership; as characteristic are strong inherently (Bartfay& Bartfay, 2017; Northouse, 2010). Considering this concept of leadership,women and minorities have been disqualified (Eddy& Cox, 2008).
The leadershipof women that emerged a few years back mainly emphasized the experiences ofmiddle- to upper-class white women, lacking consideration to women of color (Collins, 2003). Leadership approach in research revealed that women and menhave diverse styles. Burke, Stagl, Klein, Goodwin,Salas, and Halpin (2006)implied that men were task-oriented, while women become known associal leaders. Task-oriented behaviors of men suggested important in their surfacingas leaders; therefore, considered as suitable for leadership roles over women.The majority studies on leadership have concentratedon men overlooking feminineleadership such as leadership characteristics and growth(Alimo-Metcalfe &Alban-Metcalfe, 2005).
Discussions remain whether men and womenleadership roles differ. Isaac, Griffin, and Carnes (2010) indicated that leadershipstyles of both individuals are dissimilar since women display orientedleadership behaviors whereas men are planned, inventive and conventional.Leadershipand Gender FactorDouble standards in regards to leaders continueas women encounter problems in organizationsthat are male-dominated; to attain achievement women naturally require adjustmentto the male culture by taking on their mindset and standards (Bartfay &Bartfay, 2017). Heilman and Okimoto (2007)suggested that maintaining leadership positions can be challenging forwomen as the ideas that people perceive of leaders are separate from those theyidentify of women. Berdahl and Min (2012)implied that fixed beliefs about gender differences create difficult circumstances for women to get hold of the prospect andbe positioned in superior leadership ranks.The long-established representation of leadership presumes that good leadership is basically male-oriented(Alimo-Metcalfe & Alban-Metcalfe, 2005; Ryan, 2009). Thesemasculine traits persist to berelated to exceptional leadership aredefined as an excellent decision-maker, planned, self-confident and tactical (Northouse,2010).
Fisher (2015) conversely described female leaders asresponsive, understanding, concerned, and approachable. Feminine leadership styles present characteristics of beingcooperative, broad, and egalitarian (Northouse, 2010). Women are limited in high leadership status and the equality involving men and womencontinue toward descending path (Isaac,Griffin, & Carnes, 2010).Silverman (2010) reported approximately30 to 40 percent women are heading into leadership positions in the last tenyears so; women will not recognize supervisory equality in the coming years. Yet,U.S. Department of Labor Women’s Bureau (2010) conveyed women are expected to report51.2 percent of growth in the labor force among 2008 and 2018.
Although women in the labor force makeup a standard of 47 percent of minor management positions in U.S.organizations, this percentage falls considerably comprising 17 percent ofwomen at the supervisory rank (Humes,Jones & Ramirez, 2011).While women are trying to come up toleadership titles, the hurdles to guarantee stability and holding of womenleadership ability become intricate. Amongthe ongoing limitation in female leaders, the concerns have continuing outcomesfor women emerging through the barrier to advancement.Cha and Weeden (2014) pointedout that women are progressively surpassing men in the academy, and their statistics exceeding in advancing degrees.
Onthe other hand, organizations cannotoffer to waste female ability and the capability it epitomizes for corporations (Berdahl& Min, 2012). Women are involved and advancing in thelabor force and making growth into professional positions yet, entrance tosenior roles are still partial (Catalyst,2011). A look at literature uncoversthat hardly any research investigated the lived experiences of women and concentratedon women’s career development from the perception of women who have progressedinto higher positions (Denmark & Klara, 2010). Also, there is a noticeable lackof research that looks into experiences of Asian-American women who have moved up to leadership positions in organizations(Yungjoo & Weeden, 2014).Attributable to the change in workplace demographics and comprehensiveenvironment, leadership becomes essential. It is necessaryfor global organizations to recognize and extend women leaders who can work efficiently(Denmark & Klara, 2010). Still,to prospectively flourishing, people require to build up leaders who are capableof running organizations. Organizations need leaders that have an appeal and havethe potential to motivate and think for thegood interest of others in the organization.
It is significant for present organizations to have the skill to recognizevaried labor force that will consist of equal women and women of color, to offerleadership competence that can change these endeavors to address the competitionof the latest international organizations.Leadership StylesGender and leadership style frequently concentrateon the amount to which leaders areautonomous or authoritarian and the behavior in which they correspond to their staff (Burkeet al., 2006). However, there arelot disparities in the cultural background of which certain groups grow asleaders.
According to Isaac et al., (2010), the socialized qualities connectedwith successful leadership are intellectual,self-assured, and independent. Theleadership abilities that are mainly related to women are supporting, accommodative, and detail oriented (Catalyst,2005; Northouse, 2010).
Fine(2009) establishedthat minority women leadership qualities are portrayed as contributive, fostering,and transformational. Gaetane,Williams, and Sherman (2009) discussed in regards to leadership stylesthat women show to come across additional difficulty than men in acquiring leadershipposts and experiences that assist professional development.Feminist TheoriesIn the workforce, women in leadership standing can comeacross gender roleassumptions andcertain conducts that are inconsistent amid each another (Parker, 2005). For example, if a woman displays task-oriented actions she can beconsidered manly and use of authority in a mannish way to obtain opposingreactions. Alternatively, fostering behaviors are concluded as inappropriatefor organizations (Eddy & Cox, 2008; Harding, & Norberg, 2005). Ironically in acquiring authority,these women misplace feminine characteristics (Leatherwood & Williams, 2008).
Fine (2009) pointed out that these contradictions of the concept of bringing in women bythe usual systems in which they work can ensure growth by refusingassociation to an individual’s gender, social group, and by relating achievementand individuality in ways that hold back incorporated classification.Mentors frequently have an essential role in the progressof a leader (Denmark & Klara,2010). Collins (2003) specified that a woman, who applies self-reliance to handle inequalityproblems of the group as theprimary entity does not cause a challenge to the organization.However, Heilman and Okimoto (2007) considered how idiosyncrasy forms gender realizations among womenin leadership, by concentrating on divesting of feminine trait. Several studies revealed women kept away from gender discussion asthey wanted to be assessed exclusively of gender interfering (Parker, 2005; Shakeshaft, 1989). Kirsch & Royster (2012) illustrated that anxiety to separate from other women occurs from wantingto show they were separate from negative labels. There is a great deal of confrontation from these women which, concludesin segregation and powerlessness to make unity with other women eventually obstructingsocial change.
Prasad (2008) offereda summary of women in leadership roles who took on mainly traditional leadershipstyle that continued through their profession stabilization phase. Theidea was that female leaders had to appear tough to achieve respect in theworkforce (Parker, 2005). Conversely, Skrla (2000) established that assoon as a level of ease was attained, female leaders at times incorporatefeminine leadership behaviors in their functioning leadership approach.Effective leaders depict on leadership and taskorientations equally exclusive ofgender, but instead to their contextual background (Stahly, 2007). Theresearch initiated that gender is one of the environmental factors that outlinesleadership methods. It was notedthat women and men complete leadership responsibilities in similar manners, however, women have to handle more intricacy asthey are female in a conventionally male positions (Terry & Hogg, 1996). Womenhave to tackle these gender-based complexities without influencing theleadership approach they choose.
Womendecide strategies by circumstances as it is presented to them (Skrla, 2000). Women may greatly be different from oneanother in leadership approach because oftheir backgrounds. Research is present on different fronts regardinggender and leadership views. It isspecified that women perceive the world in a different way from men setting offresearchers to classify distinctive feminine leadership concepts (Brezinski,2012; White et al., 2016). Yogeswaranand Dasgupta (2010) noted that leadershipbehavior may be dependent on circumstances and vary among men and women.Socio-cultural TheoriesSocio-cultural alludes to theoreticalperspectives to reflect on gender, race, as well associal-class in evaluating attributes of power insideorganizations where supremacy can be applied to dominate (Tuhus-Dubrow, 2009).
Asian-American women are concurrently positioned as a minimum group that isforced to undergo wide-ranging lower positions, socio-culturaltheories confront the idea that obstacles can be seen as gender or racial bias (Liang,Lee, & Ting 2002). In addition, systems of coercion include many folds that bringabout discrimination, prejudice, and differences among social-class. The positions of Asian-American womenin mainly non-colored organizations go through many difficulties, which cannotbe recognized from the familiarity of other groups in such situations. As a result, minority women have realizedhow to act in response, and counter to problems rising from socio-cultural matters that have tested theirleadership understanding (Comb,2003; Kirsch & Royster, 2012).Socio-cultural theories can beconstructive for comprehending Asian-American women’s repression and separationin the workforce for the reason of setting free along with social development (Catalyst,2003; Heilman & Okimoto,2007).
Socio-cultural theories are significantin giving a structure for sensing how Asian-American women create and perform leadershipin their specialized background.In regards to studies on socio-culturaltopics, there should be broader awareness on ways that sexism, racism,ethnicity affect individuals lived experiences (Huang et al., 2010; Isaac et al., 2010).
Gender differentiationsattached with race bias create viewsthat contribute to the absence of Asian-American women at the leadership rank (Liang et al., 2002). Rudman et al., (2012) mentioned, when gender and race cometogether, contrasting principles ascends for Asian-American women, hence plummeting leadership status andcreating opposing feelings on their skill to lead. Minority women may face consistent hurdles that limit progress atthe organizational levels.
Socio-cultural theory conveys a structure for understanding the intricacyof minority women’s characteristics and occurrences (Parker & Ogilvie, 1996).Gender, race, and social class overlap and form social realism and tell the manifold that extent thelived experiences of Asian-American women(Groenewald, 2004; Prasad, 2008). Society and standards offer an outline ofindication for creating meaning of general experiences. For this reason, Asian-Americanwomen see the things from distinct standpoint centered on their social stance, alongwith the restrictions of the bigger societal structures of gender and race (Harding & Norberg, 2005).
Asian-American women look for amicableentrance to the prospects thattheir capability and their compliance to occupation enablethem. Fisher (2015) affirmsthat although in search of leadership status, women even now deal with socialand culturalfences in regards toorganizational standards, outlook of gender conformity,and typecast. Havinginsight about gender norms for Asian-American women in the labor force, prevailinghurdles can be tackled and approach broadened to raise their image in leadership standing. Gaps in the LiteratureEven though few type of research have been carriedout on Asian-American women inlabor force, theseinvestigations have normally paid attention on issues of careerdevelopment, prospects limitations, progression development, and inequity problems, instead of concentratingon the person’s lived experiences. Consequently,there is a limitation of exploration on how Asian-American women develop asleaders.
Inadequate research is present onhow gender and race characteristics influence Asian-American women as leadersand their progress as leaders in organizations. ChapterSummary Reviewing the literature, there are sufficientdetails to propose that Asian-Americanleadership development experiences maybe dissimilar in comparison to the non-coloredpopulationand other minorities. The literaturesupports the importance of looking into leadership development to recognize and advance Asian-American femaleleaders. This research study intendsto analyze race and gender for Asian-American women through their lived experiences and understand theirdevelopment as leaders. Summary of Chapter TwoThis chapter assessed leadership rolesand development of Asian-American females. This section reflected on thetheoretical framework on feminist and socio-cultural theories to present related written works on the effect of gender and race on leadership growth.
Some theories offered facts of genderpartiality, racial discrimination, and stereotypes of women of color. The research has reliably indicatedthat Asian-American women experienced race and gender partiality that have influencedtheir development to leadership status. Chapter3 will offer a comprehensive information flow of the research design, outline ofthe study’s methodology, along with collection of data.