Introduction The “Common European Frameworkof Reference for language (CEFR)” was mainly developed by the”Council of Europe” to bring together educational and culturalmatters among all State members and individuals from other countries (foreignlanguage learning).
The idea in connection to this was to promote coherence andtransparency in the education of modern language in European countries(Verhelst, et al. 2009, 23-41). The CEFR provides a structure that clearlyexplains the languages that learners are required to learn in order to enablethem to speak or use a foreign language effectively. The CEFR framework isbased on language use and learning. The framework tries not only to enable thecomparability between two or more nations but also to consider the traditionsof any given country across the globe as well as the manner in “languageproficiency standards”.
The human capacity for language isthe basis for reading. Human demarcations for several elements of reading arein line with components of language and their related terminologies. In regard,several components have been identified in linguistic (pragmatics, morphology,pronunciation, syntax, and others). There is increasing quantity across thecomponents for language acquisition progresses (sentence length, words, andsound) and there is a different understanding among individuals on the use ofthe subtler. For better understanding, readers are encouraged to get more understandingin the field of language development.
The time of giving out speech can be agood way of determining whether an individual’s language skills are developingand using support to individuals in question when support is required. Internationally, there are numerouspeople who are interested in learning the English language as it is stronglybecoming fundamental for business, learning, trade, politics and other socialissues. This makes pronunciation to be essential as people with different seekto be fluent and efficient English speakers. It is undeniable that Englishlearners experience pronunciation problems as they struggle to perfect theirlanguage. Such students are likely to find problematic sounds when learning theEnglish language.
It is therefore significant for the instructors toacknowledge the difficulties faced by such students so that they can be in abetter position to guide them in improving their grammar skills.The Members of the Class The General English course at UpperIntermediate (CEFR B2) level will be a class that will comprise various adultmulti-lingual learners whose intent will be learning English as a foreignlanguage. The B2 class will be attendedby sixteen students: Arabs, Chinese, Jamaicans, Bangladeshi.
It will also be important to consider thefact that the Chinese, Arabs, and Bangladeshi learners may need more attentionsince English may not be so familiar to them when compared to the Jamaicans whocould be speaking English with a unique accent.The Concept of David LaChapelle’sText David’s text: “Can the king ofhyper-real photography help heal the world?” It is an important tool inteaching the Arabs, Chinese, Jamaicans, and the Bangladeshi English as theirsecond language. However, it is worth noting that these students will each facedifferent linguistic challenges when analyzing the text.
The consistentemphasize on correct grammar, pronunciation, and pragmatics will reduce theproblems facing the students and increase their knowledge of the language usingDavid’s text. Nevertheless, LaChapelle’stext majorly elaborates on the unification of the people regardless of theirgeographical backgrounds. The text criticizes Trump’s ideologies of the wallthat will separate America from Mexico. Instead, love and social cohesivenesshave been presented as better elements in solving the challenges that may befacing America following the effects of the illegal immigrants fromMexico.
LaChapelle believes thatphotography can help in healing the world and maintaining the state oftranquility among conflicting nations. His thoughts about the range subject ofthe world’s controversial issues such as the fall of Rome, shooting inuniversities and utilization of metaphysical theories gives him a wide range ofsubjects to analyze. A critical analysis of the text confirms that mostcelebrities such as Beyoncé are using art and photography to past variousinformation. LaChapelle holds that the people’s oddness and freedoms must betolerated by other if there is a need for peaceful co-existence. For example,the gay people, those who are straight, the transgendered and people fromdifferent races must be treated fairly regardless of their differences. Insummary, the B2 multilingual students must be helped to interpret andunderstand the text even before getting into specific language aspects.CommonMistakes in the Text Technological advancements andglobalization have made most nations to advocate for second language skillsacquisition.
This has been the main reason for the numerous internationalstudents in a foreign nation whose main goal is to escalate their language skillsfor purposes of social cohesiveness and development projects. It is for thisreason that teachers and lecturers are encouraged to teach students the correctforms of grammar and language. Unfortunately,David’s text has numerous mistakes that can impinge on the success of teachinggrammar, pronunciation, pragmatics and other forms of language such as sentencestructure. Listof the mistakes identified.· Grammarmistakes:Regardless of the fact that David’s text is a perfect source in teaching theEnglish language, the grammar mistakes in the text can never be taken forgranted should there be a need to analyze the text surpassingly.· Misuseof articles: there are some occasions where therewere clear article use problems. Consider this sentence “Bonfire of theVanities idea of society”. It looks like the noun phrase society is missing adeterminer before it.
Hence an article could really make the sentence betterfor the leaners.· Plurality:Plurality and singularity are important parts of grammar. If that is the case,then David’s text exhibits some levels of wrongful plurality issues.
In thissentence “the crew that were resistant”, the plural verb “were” may notcorrectly merge or agree with the collective noun crew. The author of the textshould have considered changing it to “was” in order to convert it to thesingular form.· Punctuation:There are numerous sections in the text where punctuation marks were ignored orused wrongly. In this sentence “I ask him about it: apparently Beyoncé’s”, itis clear that there needs to be a comma between the word apparently and Beyoncéin order for the sentence to be grammatically sound. A good teacher will letthe students note this mistake for purposes of good language skills acquisitionand make them evade grammar mistake in their future assignments, conversations,and authorship. The other punctuation error can be seen in this sentence “Infact, he is dressed head-to-toe”. Grammatically, the introductory phrase “infact” should be followed by a comma.
Reasonsfor the mistakes There are many reasons why peoplemake grammar errors or mistakes in their writing or speech. One of the mostprevalent reason is sentence fragmentation. Secondly, the wringing speed caneasily make people ignore the grammar rules and punctuation marks hence makingmistakes. The usage of wrong words can also escalate the chances of makinglanguage mistakes, especially for learners due to the influence of their firstlanguage. For example, the Jamaican students are likely to be influenced by theAmerican English.
For this reason, their words can often be miss-spelled. Suchstudents will consider some words in David’s article to be wrongfully spelt.Such words include “colourful”, “centres”, “modelled”, “aeroplanes” and”travelled” to be wrongly spelled. This may not be the case for British Englishspeaker. Therefore, the teacher or instructor is responsible for letting the B2students understand that there is a great difference between American and TheUnited Kingdom (UK) English by noting such words. By doing so the students willbe able to advance their English skills and understand the variation of thespelling when they encounter other articles.
Expectedcorrect language forms and functions. Despite the fact that the text hadminimal sentence structure issues, one could expect the text to be shorter andless complex. It is clear that the text may be complex especially for theArabs, Chinese, and Bangladeshi considering the fact that some vocabulary couldbe sophisticated to them. Secondly, the length of some sentences was expectedto be short in order to ease the understanding of the text. Eventually, grammarerrors such as punctuation, pronunciation and sentence structure could beeasily understood by the learners. Thelanguage aspects that I will be trying to teachTheanalysis of LaChapelle’s work motivates a teacher to focus on various languageaspects especially:· Pronunciation· Pragmaticsand· GrammarRationale Since the students have vastorigins, it is true that their language problems are also different.
For thisreason, it will be prudent to understand each group of students needs in orderto help them accordingly. For instance, some voices may be problematic to theChinese and Arabs but not for the Chinese and the Bangladeshi students. otherscould be have sentence structure issues and others could be suffering fromgrammar problems. Pronunciation Pronunciation can be defined as theway in which a word is spoken, or the manner in which a word is uttered in aspecific language. For the General English course at Upper Intermediate (CEFRB2) level class, it is vital to note that correct pronunciation is importantfor better academic success and learning. Despite the fact that themultilingual students may be struggling to perfect their pronunciation skills,it is essential to note that their dialects can influence their learningprocess.
This means that the diversestudents may pronounce a given word differently based on the influence of theirfirst languages. The duration taken for cultural exposure especially inchildhood stages can affect the pronunciation prowess as students continue tolearn English. Secondly, their present residence is a vital element indetermining the success in pronunciation. Other scholars hold that ethnicity,social class, and educational level have a tremendous influence on both speechand communication process.
All this confirms that pronunciation is an importantaspect of the English language since it determines the success ofcommunication. The language used in verbal andwritten communication often behaves as a holistic system where pronunciationplays a vital role. A shift made in a given segment or area is likely to beprojected onto other areas. As a result, the meaning of words especially thewords that have different meaning and same spellings can be so challenging toforeign English learners. This makes pronunciation to be very important whenlearning. According to most English scholar, the people’s accent can affecttheir intonation abilities and speech. Following this observation, the way inwhich words are pronounced must not be taken for granted when learning.
Pronunciationis considered to be the act of producing the sounds of speech. This includesarticulation, stress, and intonation. Every language dictates how some wordsshould be pronounced. The correctness or acceptability of the sound yieldedwhen refereeing to a given work determines the effectiveness of communication.
Comparingpronunciation problematic and difficulties. Research studies demonstrate thatthe numerous errors made by English speakers especially the learners are oftensystematic rather than random. For instance, Arabic students face challengeswhen pronouncing the sounds they are not familiar with yet they are in theEnglish language. An example is wordswith sounds /v/, /p/, /?/ are more problematic to Arabic learners (Brown, 2014,193). According to Battle (2012), Arabsdo not have consonant /v/.
Comparatively, the Jamaican may not be having thischallenge. On the other hand, the Chinese students have problems whenpronouncing words that have sounds /r/ and /l/ (Lee, 2003, 144). The JamaicansEnglish language has been listed as one of the most complex since they use acombination of standard British English and Jamaican English where some wordsare eliminated at the end of the sentence. This makes their pronunciation andrhythms unique (Mordecai & Mordecai, 2001, 72).
The Bengali speakers andlearners lack labio-dental fricatives. This makes it hard for them to pronouncesounds /f/ and /v/ correctly. Sounds /w/ and /j/ are also problematic toBengali learners since they are absent in their first language (Mishra, 2010,3).