International Authority (TRA) was formed in 2003

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)United Arab Emirates’ position on Stimulating Urban Development via Information and Communication TechnologiesIntroductionInformation and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are various types of electronic tools that allow the sharing of information and knowledge.  ICTs are not only used to call another person on the other side of the globe, but they are now used for other global developments.Information and Communication Technologies focuses mainly on communication technologies that provide any person, business with a client, and supplier with a distributor, access to information through telecommunications.1  These communication technologies would include the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones and many more.  These technologies have created a “global village” because people are communicating with one another across the global.2  In today’s society, these technologies are important in our daily lives and it provides a wider knowledge that helps people gain knowledge.   ICTs have been used for the past few decades and are now changing today’s society.  Information and communication technologies have provided society with numerous global improvements and improving human life around the globe. For instance, by using ICTs there are advances in economic development by enabling millions of transactions more efficiently and effectively.  The United Arab Emirates’ History with Stimulating Urban Development via Information and Communication TechnologiesThe term “information technology” (IT) introduced in the 1970s. IT consists of study, design, development, testing and implementation, as well as support or administration of computer information systems, which is consisting mostly software application and computer hardware. Lately, it has become more common to extend the term to consist of the electronic communication field.3ICT is the combination of information processing, computing and communication technologies. ICT is drastically impacted the way today’s generation lives, works, and learns in the society, affecting different aspects such as education, health care, transportation, and other public services.  One good way to think about ICT is to keep in mind  all the possible ways of using  digital technology to help individuals, businesses and organizations which use information to be more efficient and productive.4The Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) was formed in 2003 with the role of managing all aspects of the telecoms and ICT industries in the UAE. TRA is charged with regulating and enhancing service provision of all types, issuing licenses, and promoting and developing the country as a center for telecommunications and ICT innovation. The TRA also manages the UAE’s ICT Fund, launched in 2007, which serves as a key source of financing for ICT-related developments in the country. Dubai, one of the largest emirates in UAE, is currently at the center of the seven-year Dubai Plan 2021 (DP2021) that builds on more than already stable infrastructure and policies such as 15 years of investment in advanced technology. Together, the government and the private sector have turned Dubai into a center for technological innovation in the Middle East, with the Dubai Smart City (DSC) project a testament to the emirate’s ambitions. The targeted development of a modern technology sector in Dubai began in October 1999. TECOM Investments, a subsidiary of the state-owned firm Dubai Holding, announced the formation of Dubai Internet City (DIC), UAE’s first ICT-focused free zone. When it opened for business in January 2000, DIC attracted an initial group of 100 companies and has grown substantially since then.5The UAE is consistently ranked highly in the world on various ICT-related metrics.   According to the ITU, at the end of 2014 the UAE ranked 15th in the world in terms of individuals using the internet, with 90.4% of the population surfing the web. According to the ITU’s ranking of percentage of households with internet in developing countries, the UAE ranked fourth, at 90.1%.  UAE ranked first among Arab states and 23rd in the world on the World Economic Forum’s (WEF’s) Networked Readiness Index (NRI) in 201. NRI assesses an economy’s capacity to deploy ICT for competitiveness and development. UAE also ranked first in the world on a handful of individual NRI indicators, including ICT use and government efficiency, the importance of ICT to the government’s vision of the future and the impact of ICT on access to basic services.  The UAE is still ranked 12th globally in the ICT index, one of the key indicators included in the 2016 Global Innovation Index (GII). The country is the top among the Arab nations and placed 41st worldwide in overall performance.   In the ICT Development Index 2017, UAE ranked 40th in the world , which was down from its 34th ranking in 2016.7According to a report in 2017, spending on ICT in the UAE reached $4 billion (Dh14.7 billion) in 2016.  It is because of the demands for products and services within the public and private sectors.  Because of the increased use of computers in everyday lifestyles and the use of new ICT technologies have led to a high demand for ICT goods and services in the UAE.  Interestingly, the need for ICT in Asia and Africa also provides UAE businesses and increased opportunity to sell the products and be able to export them in other places worldwide.The internet of things is one of the new key trends in UAE ICT technologies.  It is being utilized in the logistics sector and it can also be used in other parts of the economy.  Another significant trend is creating Smart city solutions and all the technologies that need to be used. Based on Cisco’s estimates, Dubai’s has increased its value of around $4.8 billion by 2019 by implementing IoT in Smart City technologies.Another significant trend is the use of cloud computing in the UAE.  It increased from $51M in 2011 to $381 million in 2016, and the growth rate (CAGR) of 49 per cent over the period.  Momentum is also growing in the network security and mobile computing segments. Network security in the UAE has a positive outlook in mobile network security and cloud computing resources.  The mobile computing segment in the UAE has an increase in mobile users from about 11.6 million in 2011 to about 19 million in 2016.7Current Situation Regarding Stimulating Urban Development via Information and Communication TechnologiesIn 2007, there was an increase in the urban cities compared to the number of people living in urban cities.  In 2050, the ratio is expected to pass 70%,  Clearly, urbanization both advantages and challenges.  Urbanization that is done too quickly will increase the need for energy, water, sanitation, as well as for services like education, transportation, health care and other public services.  As a result, everything is tightly interconnected including the social, economic, and environmental aspects.8Currently, we are making cities “smarter” so that these issues are hopefully going to be avoided or resolved.  A “smart city” includes an efficient and productive management of resources and infrastructure, better environment, and administration that are expected to result in better lifestyle for the citizens. It is possible with the better use of ICT which provide eco?friendly, productive, and economically possible solutions for the city.  Some examples of advancements using ICTs are:  better and more real-time water management based on better information exchange; public transportation systems coordinated using data from satellites, air quality, and electromagnetic field watching; home and remote health care monitoring; and world-class digital education using collaborative technologies. Then the concept of “sustainable smart city” (SSC) has emerged. The “ITU—Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU?T), through its ITU?T’s Focus Group on SSC, uses the following definition of a smart sustainable city: A Smart Sustainable City efficiency of urban operation and services, and competitiveness, while ensuring that it meets the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social and environmental aspects”.9These days, more advancements and innovations can be seen in the world. By using improvements in ICT during the last years the smart cities can contribute to economic growth and development in all areas in order to create clean and sustainable environment, to increase incomes for many people, to support poor persons, and to make the governance of the city more transparent to the whole population.  The ICT infrastructure is the main backbone of the smart city.  It interconnects and coordinates all the different interactions between the applications and infrastructure factors. It acts as the “glue” that connects all the other factors of the smart city.10Setting up a “smart sustainable city” is greater that just changing the previous technologies with new infrastructure. It has to be a massive change in everyday life when using new ICTs in order lead to smart outcomes.  There are three dimensions of a smart city: “environment and sustainability, city level services, and quality of life”. These dimensions need to be balanced to create a smart sustainable city. The following are the attributes of each dimension (some of them can be overlapping):  Environment and sustainability: infrastructure and governance, energy and climate change, pollution, waste, social, economic, and health aspects.  Additionally, city level services; such as technology, infrastructure , sustainability, governance, and economy. As with any good solution, there will be potential problems. On the one  hand, people using ICT have more efficient everyday lives.  On the other hand, people encounter new difficulties and risks. 11   The internet of things is the solution for a number of issues in the smart city today.  With the technologies combining millions of connected, digitized and equipped sensor devices, everything should be possible.  However, when there are large amounts of data, then the data are more prone to cyber attacks and security experts have proof that this is true.  Therefore, there is a need that there need to be an improved strategy. First, find the flaws, then prioritize the critical infrastructure and figure out a safe environment with no security flaws. One other challenge is the proper use of the massive data that we can gather. We will need responsible leaders who can interpret and use the data wisely. Smart cities need will need knowledgeable leaders who can protect their data and use them properly to establish the truth upon which cities make decisions. 12Proposed Actions and Solutions for Managing Urban Development via Information and Communication TechnologiesThe goal of Information and communication technologies is to use specific types of technologies through economic growth and well-organized energy usage in urban developments. ICTs are important to influence the key characteristics of the technologies so that it will benefit the society overall instead of harming it. Using Information and Communication Technologies can reduce and to improve efficiency of the use of material goods.  This results in reducing energy demands and the problem upon the environment. ICT focuses on reducing environmental impacts from our own factories and offices.  Also, ICT can reduce energy demands that are needed every day.  Therefore, there are different ways instead of using ICT equipment, like using ICT for customer activities and using green ICTs.ICT can help to increase efforts against climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change brought up the topic of ICT being implemented to help save the environment in various ways.  E-learning is an environmental friendly way in using Information and Communication Technologies.  Currently, people are having to use Co2 emissions because people are having to travel to training facilities.  Also, there is a need to distribute materials from one place to another.  Instead of needing these technologies, E-learning is a digital solution.With the usage of E-learning, it will result in a reduction of more than half of  CO2 emission for 5000 employees.14  Another example is the digital tachograph which has been developed by Fujitsu. This digital tachograph is a device that is attached to vehicles that automatically records the distance traveled, speed, operational route, and operating time.  This data is then showed to the drivers, then we can create a more eco friendly environment and driving.  The device is seen to reduce CO2 emissions by 20 percent.E-learning is used so that people in the workforce can educated and train primary healthcare workers at primary of community centers. E-learning is learning facilitated using digital technologies. E-learning can also be used in the health sector.19  It is the most significant change that has occurred in nursing education.  E-learning has benefited health care especially in nursing because it has helped move hospital training to the tertiary sector.  There are differences in computer and information knowledge for students and the teachers.  This creates a success in the implementation of E-learning into today’s society.13  ICT are used in hospitals by the development of databases and other applications.  With the use of ICT in healthcare systems it helps to improve health system efficiencies and prevent medical errors.  Physicians in hospitals are able to look on devices that have their patient’s symptoms and it is helpful if patients have a complex array of symptoms.15 TeleHomecare projects are also used for information and communication technologies.  TeleHomecare projects use of telecommunications technology.  The purpose of Telehomecare is for nurses to take care of their patients more often on a device rather than going to the patient’s house fewer times a day.  This has been very effective with pregnant women that need immediate assistance.  TeleHomecare decreases the amount of travel time and will have assisted plenty more hours throughout the day.18  The International Telecommunications Union established a new goal by 2020.  ICT can reduce the volume of e-waste by 50% and reduce greenhouse-gas emissions.  This will be done by combining data centers, the expansion of cloud-based services, and liquid cooling which causes the reduction of energy because it is required for ICT power.  Cloud-based services offers more relief for states that have tight finances and limited information technology resources.  Cloud-based solutions include: “Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS)”.16  These services can build a solution in an existing state system.  The Software as a Service (SaaS) which is sometimes used instead of the cloud-based solution.Technology helps people out of poverty.  We can use mobile banking which is when mobile phones are being used to bring banking to different regions that do not have a physical bank.  In sub-Saharan there are services that allow consumers to perform banking and payment operations on mobile devices.  These devices are helpful in paying bills, make purchases, and manage their savings.  These mobile phones have been successful for local clients in sub-Saharan Africa for banking purposes.  In 2014, $67 billion funds were transferred by African citizens back to other people around the continent.17 ConclusionThe United Arab Emirates is currently in use of different types of technology especially information and communication technologies.  ICT has created many global developments in business, economy, healthcare, and more.  ICT creates a spillover effect because ICT users increase the benefits for the whole community.  By using ICT, it has increased the amount of international cooperation and collaboration with developing countries.20  The benefits of ICTs in developing countries has helped them to accelerate their economic developments.  Additionally, smart cities are active because it includes productive management of resources and infrastructure, greener environment, and smart administration.  This will all lead to numerous global improvements and better quality life for the citizens.  Bibliography for Stimulating Urban Development via Information and Communication Technologies1. “ICT.” ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) Definition, techterms.com/definition/ict.2.”What is Information and Communications Technology (ICT)? – Definition from Techopedia.” Techopedia.com, www.techopedia.com/definition/24152/information-and-communications-technology-ict.3. A View into the UAE’s Future ICT Scene – tra.Gov.ae. www.bing.com/cr?IG=C0838B84E9124418A90C22B77F07DC2A=3F814738BCBD6A2D30BB4C4ABD126BEB=1=aYG2vKzSRSpmmyMm3PE8SkpZZbPaSc7Cvc3qVLcTXFo=1=https%3a%2f%2fwww.tra.gov.ae%2fassets%2fdul46DjC.pdf.aspx=DevEx,5065.4.”ICT Fund.” ICT Fund Introduction – About Us – Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA), www.tra.gov.ae/ictfund/en/about-us/ict-fund-introduction.aspx.5″Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA).” Telecommunications Regulatory Authority successfully maintains UAE’s high ICT performance ranking in GII 2016 – Press Releases Media Hub, www.tra.gov.ae/en/media-hub/press-releases/2016/8/31/telecommunications-regulatory-authority-successfully-maintains-uaes-high-ict-performance-ranking-in-gii-2016.aspx.6.”Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA).” Telecommunications Regulatory Authority successfully maintains UAE’s high ICT performance ranking in GII 2016 – Press Releases – Media Hub, www.tra.gov.ae/en/media-hub/press-releases/2016/8/31/telecommunications-regulatory-authority-successfully-maintains-uaes-high-ict-performance-ranking-in-gii-2016.aspx.7.Site designed and built by Hydrant (http://www.hydrant.co.uk). “Government-Led initiatives transforming Dubai’s ICT sector.” Oxford Business Group, 22 Jan. 2017, oxfordbusinessgroup.com/overview/new-phase-government-led-initiatives-are-set-transform-sector.8.Haidine, Abdelfatteh, et al. “The Role of Communication Technologies in Building Future Smart Cities.” The Role of Communication Technologies in Building Future Smart Cities | InTechOpen, InTech,7Dec.2016, www.intechopen.com/books/smart-cities-technologies/the-role-of-communication-technologies-in-building-future-smart-cities.9.iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/245/8/082008.10.Sharman, Jess. “Smart Cities, Future Cities, Sustainable Cities.” NBS, Www.theNBS.com, 19 Sept. 2016, www.thenbs.com/knowledge/smart-cities-future-cities-sustainable-cities.11.Zeine, Hatem. “The Problems With Smart Cities.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 2 Nov. 2017, www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2017/06/19/the-problems-with-smart-cities/3/#748841781ffd12.”The Security Risk Within Smart Cities.” Infosec Island, www.infosecisland.com/blogview/24951-The-Security-Risk-Within-Smart-Cities.html.13. “E-Learning & Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Nursing Education: A Review of the Literature.” Nurse Education Today, Churchill Livingstone, 18 June 2013, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0260691713001652.14. ICT at COP21: Enormous Potential to Mitigate Emissions.” World Bank, www.worldbank.org/en/topic/ict/brief/connections-note-30.15. Badri, Hala. “Key Role for Information and Communication Technology in Health Care.”The National,TheNational,31Jan.2015, www.thenational.ae/business/key-role-for-information-and-communication-technology-in-health-care-1.63947.16.”ExpandingCloud-BasedServices.”Optum, www.optum.com/resources/library/expanding-cloud-based-services.html.17. France-Presse, Agence. “Africa Leading the Way in Adoption of Mobile Banking.” NDTV Gadgets360.Com,NDTVGadgets360.Com,28Apr.2015, gadgets.ndtv.com/mobiles/features/africa-leading-the-way-in-adoption-of-mobile-banking-6864518. “How Mobile Phones Are Changing the Developing World.” CTA, www.cta.tech/News/Blog/Articles/2015/July/How-Mobile-Phones-Are-Changing-the-Developing-Worl.aspx.19. www.healthconnect-intl.org/ictforh.html.20. “What Are the Advantages of Information Technology in Business?” Chron.com, smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-information-technology-business-774.html.

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