Inequality started to decrease dramatically and it has

Inequality is agrowing problem for all countries in today’s capitalist world. We ashuman-beings expect to have a happier life so that we want to earn more moneyto live better. But, I think, increase in inequality is biggest obstacle. So,why we are expect to live in a more equal society and want more equality amonghuman-beings, what the reasons behind inequality, and why people distributethemselves from other people.

In order to understand the reasons of inequalityin general, I think, we can start from these type of questions. In order toanalyze inequality, maybe we have to look at income inequality. Max Roser andEsteban Ortiz-Ospina (2016) argue that starting from late 19thcentury, income inequality started to decrease dramatically and it has reachedhistorical lows in the late 1970s. But, in 1980s it again increased sharply.  More global world, increase and changes intechnology, bargaining between labor unions and firms about worker salaries,taxations and government spending or maybe in kind transfers to households, andlink between economic growth and inequality can be reasons of increase ininequality since 1970s. I also believe that the crises in 1970s, 2001, 2007 and2009 have a possibility to increase inequality while decreasing the income ofpeople.  Since 1970s, economic structuresof the countries changed, production styles changed.

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The gap between poor andrich people are widened. And then, rich ones started to more financialinvestments. In addition to financial investments, people started to invest ineducation. As a result, poor families’ children are forced to go to thelow-quality schools or directly forced to start a job early to maintain theirlives.  People at the top in the pyramidof capitalist system get more benefits from the best universities.

So,education becomes another factor for inequality. In addition to education,religion, existence of free markets (capitalism’s nature), privatization can beanother points for inequality. If I want to conclude by answering the questionthat why we would expect more equality among humans, none of us lives our liveswith equality of how we are dealing with the conditions of life. We have notsame tastes and preferences and we are not equally old or have not sameexperiences or chances in the life. Even we have not same resistence for adisease like cancer. So, in order to answer of the question of why inequalityrises, we have to ask what society and/or our life would have to be like tosucceed equality.

I think, understanding the reasons of inequality is the firststep in assess to what can be done.  2)  Whatare the core reasons behind the economic instability in Europe? In youropinion, what will be the future of EU? Discuss.  Europe consist ofmany well-regulated financial markets in many fields from banking totechnology. But, Europes’ economy has started to challenged by some politicaland economical issues. The core debate for Europe must solving sovereigngovernment debt and eliminating threats for Europe’s banks because in  my opinion, 2008 global crisis is the maincause of the economic instability of Europe and it mostly affected small countieswhich has own debt problems like Greece.

 It is obviously seen in Europe that unemployment becomes the mostimportant for many countries in Europe. According to Keen(2017), averageunemployment in the EU is 8.6% and there is instability and divergence withinEU. He states that Germany is fine in unemployment rate. Also France and Italythat are respectively second and third largest economies have 10 % unemploymentrate.

However, for Spain and Greece, the circumstances are different becausethey are suffering from high unemployment rates of 20%. In Spain, rather thanexcessive government debt, the crisis caused by excessive private debt. As aresult, by obsessing only government debt and completely ignoring private debtis the actual reason of EU’s crisis in 2008. Unemployment crisis is anpolitical crisis on the other hand and it is correlated with those issues. Inaddition, with the effects of 2008 global crisis,  not only economy of EU affected but alsopolitical side affected.  Brexit  (Britain & exit) is the consequence ofpolitical and economical instability in the EU. Britain has the second largesteconomy in the EU, making biggest contributions to the EU budget and have asignificant military and nuclear power. For Britain, EU is not a free trade areaand it wants to exit for free trade with the World outside the Europe.

And inmy opinion, it want to exit because of in order to have a more stongerdemocracy and more financial and economical stability. According toNewsome(2017),  the EU is illiberal andantidemocrat in the region of liberal and democratic states. If I want to talkmore about the Europe, todays world order is tend to shift to the East – China,Japan, India.

Until today, the world we live in has shaped by Europe.Capitalism and democracy embodied with Europe. many countires in the world arefollowing the Europe as economically and politically – the case of liberaldemocracy and liberal economy. But, maintanence of Europe is a question markfor me because nowadays Europe has some problems including high unemploymentrate, especially Greece and Spain, excessive government debt and private debtcrisis and some financial instability. Maybe, these problems can cause chanesin a new world order .

 3)  Does globalization decrease or increasepoverty? Discuss. Can any developing country replicate the success of Japan,South Korea or China in terms of decreasing poverty? Explain.             The world where we live in isbecoming more interconnected in economical, cultural, political ways and peopleare now more closer to each other than previous times.  The world is now more interconnected withrecent technological innovations and interdependence of economic expansionsthat cause the emergence of winners and losers as class struggle within andbetween nations. So, what I understood from the concept known as”globalization” is that goods and services in a county is transferred easly tothe other country with easy communication thanks to the innovations in technology.  Globalization which is the growth ofdeveloping countries and LDCs brings some disadvantages as well asbenefits.   First of all, I want to start my debate with talking aboutthe benefits of globalization in the case of independence of developingcountries .

It enables to countries deal with the problem of unemployment as asocial problem. I think, unemployment  leads to increase in social crime rate incountries and increases poverty and illiteracy rate. Also, it leads to cheaplabour force.

But, we can see the benefits of globalization with the effects offoreign direct investments(FDI). Multinational companies can hire theunemployed people for the benefit of host country. Also, these multinationalcompanies bring their country’s culture, lifestyle and technologicalinnovations into the host country. In doing so, the poor countries livingstandarts increases and increased competition helps to situmulate growth of FDIand with technological innovations, economics outputs increase efficently.

 Secondly, globalization can allow the emergence of winnersand losers of globalization from the presentation of Mehmetcan and Derya’spresentation in the class.  According toneoliberal globalists, globalization leads to decrease in poverty andinequality creating more jobs with free trade and FDIs. But, in fact, Marxistssaw only division of labor in the workplace and existence of class struggle. Itonly deeper the gap between rich and poor. The situation is indifferent betweenstates economical wars, I think. As a game of win or lose,  countries may try to exploit each other inorder to get more profits and to become a leader position in the world like therelationship between the US – Europe and –China.

 As a result, I saw the globalization is the child of the morecapitalist world. Although it brings many advantages to the countries and itscitizens like economic expansion, more technological innovation withinternational transfers, increased competition among nations, and cheaperproducts and lower costs, it brings disadvantages to the countries.Globalization can cause more inequality and more poverty. 4)  In your opinion. How will the world economy be50 years from now? Do you think the New Green Deal and Feminist Approachesprovide viable alternatives for the future economy? Discuss.  Of course, inorder to give ideas about the future of world economy, we have to understand thesystem in which we are living,capitalism, has emerged in the past.

I thinkcapitalism has changed itself as global capitalism in the 21st Century. And,now, we can see new face of capitalism at the threshold of new economic andpolitical crisis. Intersections of social good and technology start to grow. Technonologicalrevolutions especially in information systems and communication, internationaltransportation, more cheaper products with substitute ones gave rise to newglobalized system for economy and politics too. According to Robinson (2017),capitalists achieved a global mobility in a dual sense; first, new technologiesleads to global organization of economy and second, policymakers tried toeliminate barriers to the free trade with deregulations and free tradeagreements – emergence of Europian Union.

 Thus, we can see the shift form world economy to global economy byanalyzing the new form of capitalism in a more global world. In fact, I amexpecting a structural crises of capitalism had marked by the financial crisisof 2008 because this new type threathens ecological limits of the world andenvironmental chages that leads to climate disruption. Unfortunately, we areliving in a finite world and we cannot expect inlimited growth. According toHeertsgaard(2001),  the US governmentlaunched it to protect the world from mainly climate changes by investing intechnology to create an energy efficieny economy. It is government-led, marketbased plan to solve nation’s energy problems while yielding economical returnsand climate change. The deal must be green; it would clean up the environmentwe live, also make money for workers and owners of capital.  So, the technology is only a mean to reachthe goal of that programme.

Besides economical problems, some political issuescome into existence. For example; the case of Brexit. Britain saw EU as not afree trade area and wanted to exit from EU to make free trade with the World.It was needed because Britain wanted more financial stability and more economicgrowth in the new world order.

   

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