Indonesia is an island country which is located on the southeast coast of Asia. It is placed in between the pacific and the Indian oceans. Indonesia is separated into three parts. The three divisions are called East Indonesia, Smaller Sunda Islands and Greater Sunda Islands.
Indonesia consists of 80% water. According to a survey conducted by National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping from 2007-2010 states that Indonesia has 13,466 islands, although some people believe that there are over 18,000. This discrepancy in numbers is largely to do with tide levels. When the countries island count is taken at low tide more islands are discovered. Only 900 of Indonesia islands have permanent residents.
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Indonesia’s total territory is 5 million square kilometres and 93,000 square kilometres in made up of inland seas. Indonesia’s climate consists of nearly all an entire tropical climate. Indonesia’s tropical climate varies between mostly tropical rainforest (highest precipitation), followed by tropical monsoon and tropical savanna (lowest precipitation).
Indonesia has relatively no time change from season to season. The longest day of the year is only 48 minutes longer than the shortest. The climate allows for year round crop growth. Indonesia is located in the ring of fire which means there are a number of active volcanoes in the country.CultureIndonesia is a country in south eastern asia.
The capital of the country is the city of Jakarta. It is made up of many different types of ethnic groups such as 45% Javanese. 14% Sudanese, 7.5% Madurese, 7.5% Coastal Malays, 26% other.
The official language is Indonesia or Bahasa Indonesian, this is a dialect of the Malay language, this is actually most people second language, most people speak Minangkabau or Javanese. There are over 300 ethnic groups on the 1000 islands that are inhabited out of the 6000 islands that make up Indonesia. Each province has its own language, ethnic makeup and history and religion making each province different from the next. Indonesia is a mix of chinese, european, indian and Malay. The nation’s motto” Unity in diversity” .
Indonesia’s official coat of arms is centered on the Garuda, and ancient, mythical bird from the country’s historical epics, this is often used to represent the country. The Garuda had a great deal of symbolism. The eagle is a symbol of creative energy. Its principal color, gold, symbolizes the greatness of the nation.
The black color represents nature. There are 17 feathers on each wing, 8 on the tail and 45 on the neck. These numbers stand for the date Indonesia proclaimed its independence: 17 August 1945.
The shield symbolizes self-defense and protection in struggle. The five symbols on the shield represent the state philosophy of Pancasila. The motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (“Unity in Diversity”) is enshrined on a banner held in the eagle’s talons, signifying the unity of the Indonesian people despite their diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. One thing that is very important in Indonesian culture is the concept of face is very important, it is about avoiding shame , they are very careful with how they interact and speak, never ridicule, shout or offend. Greetings are always done in a way to show respect. Indonesia means Indian Islands. Some holidays that are important are September 1st, it is Idul Adha, September 21, 2017 – Islamic New Year.
Religion The constitution of Indonesia states that Indonesia is a secular state, that gives citizens more religious freedom because it is neutral in regards to religion. Indonesia’s first principe foundations of religion were a belief in one god and one god only. Indonesia has 6 official government recognized religions. The 6 recognized religions are Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Catholic, Confucianism, Protestantism. The Indonesian conference of religion and peace believes there are other 245 religions practice in Indonesia that aren’t recognized by the government. Indonesia law requires that all Indonesian citizens carry an identification card that identifies each citizen with one of the governments 6 recognized religions. Although as per the constitutions statement of religious freedom those who don’t identify with a religion can leave it blank.
Blasphemy, talking negatively or using profanity towards god or any god like symbol is illegal in Indonesia. 82% of Indonesia’s population believes in Muslim beliefs, majority are Sunni Muslims. Únfourtunatly religion in Indonesia has been the cause of a lot of violence in Indonesia throughout history. One of Europe’s longest lasting impacts on Indonesia is the approximate 23 million Christians that are currently living in Indonesia. It is significantly the second largest religion in Indonesian. StereotypesSome stereotypes are that all over the islands there are a million tourists traps and they charge you way to much money for trips. Some foreigners may have a mental image of Indonesian women wearing headscarves and long dresses.
Some tourists may even feel the need to dress as conservative as possible to respect the local culture. And while a modest attire is considered more polite, no one is judging anyone for wearing anything. In the big cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bali, and more, visitors will see the majority of locals often walking around in jeans and a shirt, with many even wearing imported brands. While there are still many ethnic groups who live traditionally with little to no modern technology, many parts of the country are now well developed.
Indonesia has several big cities dense with shopping malls, hotels, and other modern facilities. And even the smaller towns have electricity and internet connection. Sadly, poverty is, indeed, a present social issue in Indonesia. But the generalization that Indonesians are poor is not true. The country has a growing consumer class and professionals working in big international industries. As a country, Indonesia also has a strong economic growth and one of the highest GDPs in Asia.
Famous PeopleSuharto was the second president of the country, he was in office for 31 years. He was also an army official. Suharto gave the country much needed political stability and helped the economic growth a lot. Joko Widodo was a businessman, politician and government official.
He was the governor of the capital city, Jakarta, for 2 years. During his life he brought in new democratic era into the countries politics. Chairil Anwar was a poet and author. He transformed literature in the country through his intense poetry and his rebellious stance towards religion and socials norms. Family Structure Family is very important in indonesian culture. It is common for extended family including grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins to all live together under one roof. In Indonesia more daughters are being educated outside the home which is leading to a decline in the gender gap in schools.
Smaller families are becoming more popular as they are more feasible although this is causing a decline in the fertility rate. The average age of first marriages is increasing. Divorce is becoming more accepted and common in Indonesia. In 2010 80% divorce applications were filed by women and granted by the courts. Even though Indonesian culture reflects a fairley patriarchal society they are modernizing their views and giving women more independence.History Indonesians today are, like Malaysians and Filipinos, of Malay origin and are the descendants of migrants that arrived around 4000 BC. From about 400 BC Indonesians traded with other nations such as China and India.
In the early 16th century the Portuguese arrived in Indonesia. Europe was always in demand for spices such as nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, cloves and mace which were in abundance in Indonesia . From 1670-1900 the Dutch colonists bring the whole of Indonesia under one government and call it the Dutch East Indies.
In 1950s, Maluku (Moluccas) declares independence from Indonesia and fights an unsuccessful separatist war. On February 22, 1967, Indonesian President Sukarno surrenders all executive authority to military dictator General Haji Mohammad Suharto. In 1965 there was a failed coup.In the aftermath, hundreds of thousands of suspected Communists are killed in a purge of leftists which descends into vigilantism.Economy Indonesia has the largest economy in southeast Asia.
Indonesia has one of the most emerging markets in the world. Indonesia is a member of the G20. It is ranked to have the 16th largest economy based on nominal GDP which is $1.020 trillion. It is ranked 7th largest in the world based on GPA by PPP which is $3028 trillion.
Although there GDP per capita ranks them below the global average. Since the 1990’s majority of the economy is controlled by foreign companies and private indonesian investors. In 2012 Indonesia replaced India as the fastest growing G20 economy behind China. Since then the annual growth has slowed down and now maintains a steady rate of 5%. About 30% of Indonesian land is used for Agriculture which makes up for around 14% of the GDP and employs over 40% of Indonesia’s workforce. Indonesia is the world’s largest tin market and is expanding its copper, nickel, gold, and coal output for export markets. The total export of automotives is 22.5 percent of total production.
Automotive export is more than double of its import and is expect to continue to rise. FoodRice, the country’s staple food, dates back as early as 2300 B.C.
Known for the spice islands and the spices they have. Nasi goreng (fried rice), is one of Indonesia’s national dishes. One of the most unique cuisines in the world. Although meals are generally simple, the plentiful use of various roots, spices, grasses, and leaves adds zest to most dishes. Most Indonesian food is prepared with contrasting flavors, such as a spicy sweet or hot sauce served over a bed of plain white rice, a popular meal throughout the country. Those who cannot afford rice, or who live in a region with poor soil or low rainfall, must rely on an alternative staple, such as yams or soybeans. choose to snack on a variety of small dishes throughout the day, rather than three larger meals.
Once the meals are prepared, they are usually left, at room temperature, on the kitchen table for family members to nibble on whenever they are hungry. When separate larger meals are consumed, makan pagi (breakfast) is normally a bowl of fried rice, noodles, or soto (soup), accompanied by Java coffee (which has become world famous) or tea. Makan siang (lunch) is often the main meal of the day, followed by makan malam (dinner) after the workday has ended. The base of most meals is nasi (rice). Some common meals that are eaten are Sambal, which is a chili paste, Kari Ayam, chicken curry, Satay, seasoned meat, and Eis Cendol, a dessert with “green worms” which are just noodles made of mung bean flour which is green. Indonesia may look like the population is not that large but all of the islands have large populations. The population for all of Indonesia is 261.
1 million. The median age is 29.9. Population density, 134 per km2, Java is the most populated island and had the population density of 940 people per km2.
Life expectancy is 69.07 years. The fertility rate is 2.44 births per woman. 53.
7% of the population live in urban places. Jakarta, the capital city, has a population of 10.233 million . The median age for first baby is 22.8.
The majority of Indonesia’s population is Muslim