India,often called the Diabetic Capital of the world stands first in the worldranking of countries with the highest number of diabetes patients. With over 70million diabetes cases, India has a serious necessity to focus more on thiskiller disease. Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of commonmetabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetesmellitus is a metabolic and endocrinological disease characterized byhyperglycemia associated with insulin resistance and/or defective insulinsecretion1.Cardiovascular disease has beenreported to be the most important cause for sudden morbidity and mortality indiabetes patient. Ceruloplasmin(CP) is a copper-containing alpha-2-glycoprotein with a molecular weight ofapproximately 132 kDa. Ceruloplasmin has diverse functions.
It is essential foriron homeostasis, is involved in angiogenesis and acts as a pro-oxidant or an antioxidant2.The known functions of ceruloplasmin include copper transportation, ironmetabolism, antioxidant defense, and involvement in angiogenesis andcoagulation. It has been shown that ceruloplasmin catalyzes the oxidation ofiron(II) to iron(III), with a catalytic cycle that involves four of the sixatoms of copper associated with ceruloplasmin, and uses dioxygen as an electronacceptor without the mediation of an incompletely reduced reactive oxygenspecies, such as a superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide3.
It has been establishedthat serumceruloplasmin level increases in subjects withcardiovascular disorders, likeatherosclerosis, as a response to inflammatory process4. Reactive oxygenspecies disrupt copper binding to ceruloplasmin, thereby impairing its normalprotective function as liberated copper may generate free radicals and oxidize LDLmaking it more atherogenic. Proinflammatorycytokines generated in adiposetissue can increase hepatic synthesis of Inflammation Sensitive Plasmaproteins. These proteins are recognized as cardiovascular disease risk factorsand some of them like haptoglobin, fibrinogen, ?1-antitrypsin, and Cpwere used in clinical practice to measure the degree of inflammation5. Various studies had evaluated the associationbetween serum ceruloplasmin concentration and insulin resistance.
Also studieshad evaluated the complexity of relation between serum ceruloplasmin andobesity.But only few studies have compared serum ceruloplasmin in relation to BMI and cardiovascularrisk factors like lipid profile in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients. This study aims to predict the risk ofdeveloping cardiovascular diseases among type 2 diabetes patients having highBMI by correlating the serum ceruloplasmin levels with lipid profile.