India, to BMI and cardiovascular risk factors like

often called the Diabetic Capital of the world stands first in the world
ranking of countries with the highest number of diabetes patients. With over 70
million diabetes cases, India has a serious necessity to focus more on this
killer disease.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic and
endocrinological disease characterized by hyperglycemia associated with insulin
resistance and/or defective insulin secretion 1. Cardiovascular disease has been reported to be the most important cause
for sudden morbidity and mortality in diabetes patient.


(CP) is a copper-containing alpha-2-glycoprotein with a molecular weight of
approximately 132 kDa. Ceruloplasmin has diverse functions 2. The known
functions of ceruloplasmin include copper transportation, iron metabolism, antioxidant
defense, and involvement in angiogenesis and coagulation. It has been revealed
that ceruloplasmin catalyzes the oxidation of iron(II) to iron(III), and uses
dioxygen as an electron acceptor without the mediation of an incompletely
reduced reactive oxygen species, such as a superoxide anion or hydrogen
peroxide3. It has been established that serum ceruloplasmin level as
a response to inflammatory process increases in subjects with cardiovascular disorders4.
Reactive oxygen species disrupt copper binding to ceruloplasmin, thereby
impairing its normal protective function as liberated copper may generate free
radicals and oxidize LDL making it more atherogenic.


Proinflammatory cytokines generated in
adipose tissue can increase hepatic synthesis of Inflammation Sensitive Plasma
proteins like haptoglobin, fibrinogen, ?1-antitrypsin, and Cp. These were
used in clinical practice to measure the degree of inflammation and are
recognized as cardiovascular disease risk factors 5.


Various studies had evaluated the association
between serum ceruloplasmin concentration and insulin resistance. Also studies
had evaluated the complexity of relation between serum ceruloplasmin andobesity.
But only few studies have compared serum ceruloplasmin in relation to BMI and cardiovascular
risk factors like lipid profile in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients.

This study aims to predict the risk of
developing cardiovascular diseases among type 2 diabetes patients having high
BMI by correlating the serum ceruloplasmin levels with lipid profile.



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