INDEPENDENT RESEARCH REPORT
B.Sc. (Special) Estate Management and Valuation Degree Part IV
Study on application of Green Building Concept in Residential Condominiums in Colombo
Student Name: P.R.G.A.P. Jayasinghe
Registration No: MC 77281
Exam No: 14235
Date of Submission 05/07/2018
Supervisor’s Name Prof. R.P Ariyawansa
Department of Estate Management and Valuation
University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u
CHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc522427051 h 3Introduction PAGEREF _Toc522427052 h 31.1Background of the study PAGEREF _Toc522427053 h 31.2Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc522427054 h 61.4 Significant of the study PAGEREF _Toc522427055 h 71.5 Objectives PAGEREF _Toc522427056 h 9General objective PAGEREF _Toc522427057 h 9Specific objectives PAGEREF _Toc522427058 h 91.6 Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc522427059 h 91.7 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc522427060 h 91.6 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc522427061 h 101.6.1 Data and Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc522427062 h 101.6.2 Population PAGEREF _Toc522427063 h 111.6.3 Sample PAGEREF _Toc522427064 h 111.6.5Matrix PAGEREF _Toc522427065 h 111.7Limitation PAGEREF _Toc522427066 h 14CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc522427067 h 14Literature review PAGEREF _Toc522427068 h 142.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc522427069 h 142.2 Sustainable Development PAGEREF _Toc522427070 h 142.2.1 Sri Lankan effort on Sustainable development PAGEREF _Toc522427071 h 162.2.2 Real estate development and sustainability PAGEREF _Toc522427072 h 172.3 Green Building Concept PAGEREF _Toc522427073 h 182.3.1 What is “Green Building” PAGEREF _Toc522427074 h 182.3.2 Principles of Sustainable Construction PAGEREF _Toc522427075 h 192.3.4 Green Building standards PAGEREF _Toc522427076 h 202.3.5 Why GREEN rating is important for Sri Lanka PAGEREF _Toc522427077 h 212.3.6 Aspect of Green Building PAGEREF _Toc522427078 h 222.3.7 Application PAGEREF _Toc522427079 h 272.3.8 Issues PAGEREF _Toc522427080 h 282.4 Condominium Concept PAGEREF _Toc522427081 h 282.4.1 Condominium Development in Sri Lanka PAGEREF _Toc522427082 h 292.4.2 Condominium Management Authority PAGEREF _Toc522427083 h 312.5 Green Condominium PAGEREF _Toc522427084 h 31CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc522427085 h 34Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc522427086 h 344.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc522427087 h 34References PAGEREF _Toc522427088 h 50
List of Table
TOC : z c “Table” Table 1 :Cross Tabulation of Gender and Age PAGEREF _Toc522427089 h 35Table 2: Level of education PAGEREF _Toc522427090 h 35Table 3: Profession PAGEREF _Toc522427091 h 36Table 4:Resident in a Green condominium PAGEREF _Toc522427092 h 37Table 5: Level of Important of Green Building Features PAGEREF _Toc522427093 h 38Table 6: Green Features that are willing to pay more for Green PAGEREF _Toc522427094 h 39Table 7: Barriers that are holding back from choosing Green Condominiums over Conventional Condominiums PAGEREF _Toc522427095 h 40Table 8: Green image give advantage in the market PAGEREF _Toc522427096 h 41Table 10: Level of application of Sustainable Site Planning and Management Features PAGEREF _Toc522427098 h 44Table 11: Barriers PAGEREF _Toc522427099 h 49List of figures TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1: Planned Green Activity Over the Next Three Years (Global Average and by Country) PAGEREF _Toc522427100 h 6Figure 2 : Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc522427101 h 10Figure 2: The Semantic of Sustainable Development PAGEREF _Toc522427102 h 16Figure 3: Component of sustainable development PAGEREF _Toc522427103 h 16Figure 4: Semantic of Sustainable Development PAGEREF _Toc522427104 h 19Figure 1: Consideration of environmental aspect before buying: PAGEREF _Toc522427105 h 37Figure 2: Awareness about Green Building PAGEREF _Toc522427106 h 38Figure 3: The best type Green Condominium PAGEREF _Toc522427107 h 39Figure 4: Willingness to pay more for the Green PAGEREF _Toc522427108 h 40Figure 5: Green Condominiums Developed PAGEREF _Toc522427109 h 42Figure 6 : The best type of Condominium for the application of Green PAGEREF _Toc522427110 h 43Figure 7:Minimum number of floors PAGEREF _Toc522427111 h 44
CHAPTER ONEIntroductionBackground of the studyGreen building provides environmentally friendly, healthier living for occupants. Moreover, Richardson ; Lynes (2007) noted that Green building is a term that is more energy and resource efficient, releases less pollution into the air, soil and water, and also healthier for occupants than standard buildings. Therefore, sustainable building provides benefits such as substantial operating savings, contribute in creating market value, improve the health of building occupants and increase productivity.
As Chendo (2013) points out environmental issues, including climate change, global warming, waste of natural resources and pollution have become issues for all communities due to increasing high levels of industrialization and also economic growth and development is preventing environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and unsustainable natural resource use. So, Environmental and social factors of sustainability have become gradually important. As a result, need of sustainable built environment is arising and environment components such as energy efficiency, water conservation, waste management, carbon footprint reduction, bio-diversity/eco-system, noise pollution reduction, green building design and construction, ecological food, environmental education (employees and customers), green purchase and supply chain, environmental partnership and indoor air quality are identified by Hsieh (2012).
With growing concern, greater attention is being paid to the impact of buildings on the environment. The findings, Jones (2016), reveals that green building is a global trend, with importance placed on energy conservation. The percentage of firms expecting to have more than 60% of their projects certified green is expected to more than double from 18% from 2016 to 37% by 2018. Client demand has regularly been an important part and it takes a significant top driving future green activity, from 35% in 2012 to 40% in 2015. When considering about application, Green Building design can be applied for all types of building project such as residential, commercial, industrial and corporate buildings.
With the global advancement, construction of green building has become the newfangled trend in Sri Lanka. As a result, the “Punarudaya” three years National Programme on Environmental conservation is implementing cords of Green Building Guidelines and Green Rating system to creating a greener Sri Lanka. This programme is implemented by Urban Development Authority under the Ministry of Megpolis and Western Development and under the first step all the Government and Semi- Government construction projects (after 9th January 2017) should proceed with the Green Building guideline. And also it is open for Private sector institution as well. Out of that, the green building council of Sri Lanka is established and in 2010 GREENSL rating system has been introduced by Green Building Council CITATION Gre11 l 1033 (Green Building Council Sri Lanka, 2011). The final outcome expected through the adoption of this concept is to enhance occupant well-being and minimize environmental impact throughout the entire lifecycle.
Due to rapid increasing of population, resources like Land, water, energy became scared. As a result, vertical development, such as flats, apartments, condominiums are developed worldwide. Because of lack of prime land availability and convenience to create significant demand for the condominium in Sri Lanka. When consider about the real estate market in Sri Lanka it is shown upward trend in constructing condominiums with the high demand. According to the Real Estate in Sri Lanka Prospects and Potential (2011), 8,129 condominium units have been supplied in Colombo during 2005-2011 and 34% of the supply of condominium units in Colombo in the premium category (LKR 25-45 million). For a growing high and middle income population, luxury housing is a key attraction in residential markets. There are 714 completed units and 3740 upcoming units (Sri Lanka – Land of Real Estate Opportunities 2017). According to that imaging condominium market in Sri Lanka has forward trend. Because of condominium policies and developments such as port city projects.
When considering about sustainability of the built environment, it should be consisted with sustainable features. It means, “Green Features” should be added to the development. The concept of Green condominium arises providing solution for that. Simply, the term “Green Condominiums” can be defined as a condominium developed as a green building in order to minimization of the negative effect on the environment and increasing the living standards of people by efficient utilization of resources.
right738781center5112310Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Planned Green Activity Over the Next Three Years (Global Average and by Country)Source: World Green Building Trends 2016
Figure 1 shows the future trend in the application of green activities for both Low-Rice and High- Rise residential buildings in the world wild. Most livable countries such as Switzerland, Canada, UK, Japan, USA etc. has made significant attempts to increase application of green concept for residential property.
When considering about Sri Lanka, there are only one residential building has taken GREENSL certificate according to data provided by Green Building Council and There is a one LEED certified Green Condominium in Sri Lanka. According to UDA green building guideline for Sri Lanka government condominiums should take green certificate for their projects.
With the global application Sri Lanka at the lower level application of Green Building Concept specially in residential condominium sector. When considering about the private sector condominium market, there is no parallel growing between condominium development and get a green certificate for their construction even though there are different green rating systems available for developers. Therefore, it is important to examine private sector perception on application of Green building features in residential condominiums in current context and existing barriers when practice.
Green building concept has been introduced to mitigate negative impact on the environment due to the building construction and also it provides benefits from both economic, social and environmental points of view. According to the data provided by Urban Development Authority and Green Building Council of Sri Lanka, application of the Green building concept to building construction has initial stage.
When considering about construction in residential sector, condominium development shows significant role. According to the Real Estate in Sri Lanka Prospects and Potential (2011), 8,129 condominium units have been supplied in Colombo during 2005-2011 and 34% of the supply of condominium units in Colombo in the premium category (LKR 25-45 million). According to Sri Lanka – Land of Real Estate Opportunities (2017), luxury housing is a key attraction in residential markets and demand for such housing is derived from a growing urban wealthy demographic. In addition to this, non-resident Sri Lankans (NRSLs) keen to invest in their country of origin also drive demand. Currently over 3000 units are under development and these projects are due for completion between 2017-19. In addition to condominium policy such as Remove freehold right restrictions from ground floor, Government will allow foreigners purchasing condominiums. So imaging condominium market has forward trend.
According to world green building trend 2016, application of green features to condominium show growing trend. But in Sri Lankan Context only one residential building has taken GREENSL certificate up to 2017 and only one LEED certified residential condominium. So, there is no parallel growing between condominium development and get green certificate for their construction and also It can be seen problem in practice and also Under the “Punarudaya” national programme Green building rating system compulsory for Government Condominiums or Government Housing Project. Sill it is not compulsory for Privet sector development. Therefore, it is important to examine private sector preference on application of Green building features in condominiums in current context and identify existing barriers in practice. Therefore, this gap is addressed with in this research.
1.4 Significant of the studyGreen Building concept mainly forces to the minimize negative impact to natural environment. Because due to the conventional building, that make significant negative impact for the environment, economy and the Social development. According to World Economic Forum Industry Agenda Council (2016), build environment consumes over 40% of global energy annually. 20% of total global greenhouse gas emissions originate from buildings and 7% increase in proportionate share of global greenhouse gas emissions is expected by 2030. Part of that they are expected 56% increase in building CO2 emissions by 2030.when considering about resource consumption, Buildings use 40% of raw materials globally (3 billion tons annually) and also Buildings have a significant and growing impact on other environmental aspects. Moreover, Green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources, protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity and Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation.
According to the evidence of Green Building Council of Sri Lanka the application of the concept of green building has recently come to the forefront of the construction industry in Sri Lanka. Approximately twenty green buildings (up to 2018 January) have achieved the certification of awards according to the Environmental Classification Systems for green buildings and sixteen on going projects. According to Silva ; Sahasrabudhe (2017) real estate market in Sri Lanka shows upward trend especially in residential sector.
When considering about application of green features to residential sector, Green Condominium takes significant place and specific guide for multi-unit residential buildings is necessary because of significant differences in design and construction practices between commercial and residential buildings. However, there are numerous benefits of buying or living in a Green certified building. unit owner, this means that the total building energy consumption is lower than a conventional building, which reduces both common element charges and in-suite energy charges. Building durability is another potential benefit of sustainable building. Greater building durability means fewer repairs and replacements to building components, and this can mean lower common element fees due to lower maintenance costs and lower reserve fund contributions. ventilation in multi-unit residential buildings represent a fundamental design standard and it supply filtered fresh air. Developers can take green certificate as marketing tool.so they have marketing potential. Moreover, not directly impact unit owners, but serve to benefit the environment as a whole.
When considering about overall outcomes, Green building concept is significant. Therefore, study about the green building application in condominium is also timely significant. This study will be benefited for property developers, potential buyers, existing occupiers, policy makers to make decision.
1.5 ObjectivesGeneral objectiveThe general objective of this research is to study the application of green building features in residential condominiums in Colombo.
Specific objectivesTo study the preference of condominium households about green living.
To evaluate the level of application of green features in selected residential condominiums in Colombo in line the Green Building Guidelines for Sri Lanka.
To identify major barriers faced by the developers regarding the application of Green Building Features.
H0: There is a relationship between no. of years of experience in residential development and taking Green Rating system for their development.
H1: There is no relationship between no. of years of experience in residential development and taking Green Rating system for their development.
1.7 Conceptual Framework
left101600Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 : Conceptual Framework00Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 : Conceptual Framework
left206375Preference of Application of Green Building Features in Residential Condominiums
Awareness of Condominium householders
Existing barriers on developers
Existing level of application
00Preference of Application of Green Building Features in Residential Condominiums
Awareness of Condominium householders
Existing barriers on developers
Existing level of application
Source: Author (2018)
1.6 Methodology1.6.1 Data and Data CollectionTo accomplish the above objectives, mix research approach is used. Especially mention that for the purpose of this research, any building with a certificate under any Green Rating System is considered as “Green Building” and the evaluation criteria are considered as features of Green Building. In this research, Green Building criteria/ Guidelines of “Green Building Guidelines for Sri Lanka” used for the evaluation purpose.
Collection of secondary data:
Identify the criteria through the Green Building Guideline for Sri Lanka. That is the Green Building Ration System specially for Government constructions and it operative for Private sector institution as well. It is implemented by Urban Development Authority under the Ministry of Megapolis and Western Development.
Collect the names of condominium developers from Condominium Management Authority. Because every condominium should register under the Condominium Management Authority.
Collection of primary data:
The primary data collection is done through direct interview using structured questionnaire survey from both residential condominium Developers and condominium households.
Condominium Developers: They are the people and companies who coordinate all activates such as buy land, finance deal, organize the process of development, build project, create, imagine, control and selling after the completion.
Condominium Householders: they are the people who buy and living in condominium units.
1.6.2 PopulationAccording to data provided by Condominium Management Authority identify developers who are registered their condominium at Condominium Management Authority. Population size approximately 100 developers.
1.6.3 SampleFrom that list, sample is selected and simple random sampling is used as sampling method. Selection criteria are,
Residential Condominium Developers who has done their construction within Colombo (inner and capital zone suburbs).
Residential Condominium Developers should register under the Company Act on 7 of 2007. It means Private Limited Companies. According to list, there are approximately 40 development companies found.
15 condominium development companies are selected.
40 condominium householders are selected using random sampling method.
Descriptive data analysis and univariate analysis were done Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).
MatrixSpecific objectives Research question (identify relevant variables/concepts) Measurement of variables Data/ Information
•To evaluate the level of application of green features in selected residential condominiums in Colombo in line the Green Building Guidelines for Sri Lanka. Green Building Concept
Energy Efficiency Zoning of lighting sources/equipment
High performance energy efficiency
Efficiency of electric illumination
Power factor correction
Improvement and operation of energy efficiency
Sustainable site planning and Management Site selection
Abandoned (Brown field) site Redevelopment
Development design and community coordination/management/innovation
Preparation of environmental management and environmental safeguard plan
Laying and improvement of green ground cover
Mitigating of construction pollution
Quality assurance in building construction
Minimizing the use of private vehicles and encourage public transport usage
Rainwater drainage plan- quality and quantity control
Green cover and roofs
User’s manual for building users
Materials and Resource Management Re-use and selection of materials
Material containing recycled substance
Re-use of existing building
Regionally available materials for building construction
Use of high value green building materials
Construction waste management
Refrigerants and clean agents
Quality the building environment Monitoring and controlling of CO2
Indoor air pollutants
Designing an installation of optimum temperature control units
Air change effectiveness
Controlling the glare of intake sunlight
Eclectic light level
Internal and external views
Intern noise level
Rain water harvesting
Waste water recycling and efficient use
Water metering and water leaks identification system
Water efficiency tools equipment
Green Innovation Utilization of innovations
Social and cultural compatibility Design and building of socially and culturally compatible building
•To identify major barriers faced by the developers regarding the application of Green Building Features. Barriers Lack of building codes and regulation
Lack of incentives
Higher investment cost
Risk of investment
Higher final price
Lack of credit resources to cover up front cost
Lack of Public awareness
Lack of demand
Lack of strategy to promote green building
Lack of design and construction team
Lack of expertise
Lack of professional knowledge
Lake of database and information (case study)
Lack of technology
Lack of government support
•To study the preference of condominium households about green living. Are they aware about Green ? Do they think about environmental aspect before buying?
Are they knowing about Green building?
Importance of green features
How much they are willing to pay more for Green
For which features they willing to pay more
Barriers holding back from choosing green buildings
Source: CITATION Urb17 l 1033 (UDA, 2017)LimitationThis research will be carried out within Colombo area in Sri Lankan context. Few research and case studies are available in Sri Lankan context. However, more information is available regarding with international context. Condominiums are developed under both government and private sector. The study is mainly focus on private sector condominium in Colombo. The focus group for data collection is limited to Condominium property developers who are listed under the Companies Act no 7 of 2007. It means primary data are collected through condominium development companies. And this study is done from both condominium developers and householders point of view.
CHAPTER TWOLiterature review2.1 IntroductionThis chapter covers the theoretical background on Sustainable Development, Green Building Concept, Condominium Concept and Green condominium.
2.2 Sustainable DevelopmentThe United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, report in 1987 was established definition for Sustainable Development. This definition states: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.” This definition highlights the long-term aspect of the concept of sustainability and presents the ethical principle of achieving equity between the present and future generations. The word “needs” include a sound environment, a just society and a healthy economy CITATION Mar00 l 1033 (Diesendorf, 2000). Hill (2003) points out, Sustainable development can be defined “as growing natural and industrial resources which meet the energy need of the present times without settling the ability of next generations for meeting their needs in the same manner”.
right29591000Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: The Semantic of Sustainable DevelopmentSource: CITATION sha91 l 1033 (sharachchandra, 1991)The term “ecological” is normally placed before ‘sustainable development’ to indicate the primacy of the ecological aspect of sustainability. But a more accurate term would be “ecologically sustainable and socially equitable development. Here it indicates sustaining ecological basis of human life. With this interpretation, sustainability could in principle exist under some forms of capitalism and some forms of socialism. The economic and social aspects of sustainability are combined into a single aspect called ‘human sustainability’. According to the definition of sustainability, social sustainability enter through social equity and many components of human well-being that cannot be described by economic indicators CITATION Mar00 l 1033 (Diesendorf, 2000). According to that we could be found three most important indicators of sustainability. These are Environment, Society and Economic.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Component of sustainable developmentleft6921500
Source: CITATION Bom10 l 1033 (Bombugala & Atputharajah, 2010)When considering about past decades, environmental issues, including climate change, global warming, waste of natural resources and pollution have become issues for all communities due to increasing high levels of industrialization. But with the sustainability objectives Environmental and social factors have become gradually important strategic considerations for enterprises of any size. Therefore, sustainability is fast gaining drive across economies, as a way to pursue economic growth and development, while preventing environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and unsustainable natural resource use. Moreover, sustainability will involve greening traditional sectors and supporting the transition of all economic actors, both producers and consumers, towards sustainable practices. CITATION Man13 l 1033 (Chendo, 2013).
2.2.1 Sri Lankan effort on Sustainable developmentTo promote the sustainable practice Sri Lanka Sustainable Development Act No. 19 of 2017 is enacted for the development and implementation of a national policy and strategy of sustainable development in Sri Lanka. As a result of that, sustainable development council was established. Out of that sustainable development goals are established and their targets into a management tool to help countries develop implementation strategies, allocate resources, as well as a report card to measure progress towards sustainable development, and help ensure the accountability of all stakeholders for achieving the 17 goals.CITATION DEP17 l 1033 (DEPARTMENT OF CENSUS AND STATISTICS, 2017)2.2.2 Real estate development and sustainabilityReal estate refers to the land and anything fixed, immovable, or permanently attached to it such as buildings, fences, fixtures, improvements, roads, shrubs and trees (but not growing crops), sewers, structures, utility systems, and walls. When considering about real estate development, it has shown high contribution to gross domestic product, has undeniable impacts on the economy. However, building construction industry shows the major role through adding new value to the land. With the positive image we could be identified negative image as well. Moreover, construction activities which are regarded as the heart of every development constitute a powerful influence on the environment. Human habitats (buildings) add to environmental crises through resource depletion, energy consumption, air pollution and creation of waste. According to Ajatar (2000), There are ten different adverse effects of construction activities on the environment. These include, among others, land misuse, existing site dereliction, habit destruction, misuse of natural resources, and so on. In addition, the on-site construction practices result in a number of health and comfort disturbances, especially to people living where construction activities are taking place.
According to World Economic Forum Industry Agenda Council (2016), build environment consumes over 40% of global energy annually. 20% of total global greenhouse gas emissions originate from buildings and 7% increase in proportionate share of global greenhouse gas emissions is expected by 2030. Part of that they are expected 56% increase in building CO2 emissions by 2030.when considering about resource consumption, Buildings use 40% of raw materials globally (3 billion tons annually) and also Buildings have a significant and growing impact on other environmental aspects. For example, by 2030 buildings are expected to use 12% of global fresh water, and generate 30% of total waste in the European Union. The cement production alone emits 5% of greenhouse gasses contributing to the climate changes, endangering the human life on the planet. The root cause of most the issues that we are facing today is that we lost our tradition in which sustainability concept was deeply rooted. If humankind continues to use the resources at the present rate, we need to have one and a half earths. The rate of consumption of resources needs to be bought down sooner than later which required a paradigm shift in the life style and attitude of the people lowering their ecological footprint.
As a result, need of sustainable built environment is arising and according to Hsieh, (2012), identified environment components such as energy efficiency, water conservation, waste management, carbon footprint reduction, bio-diversity/eco-system, noise pollution reduction, green building design and construction, ecological food, environmental education (employees and customers), green purchase and supply chain, environmental partnership and indoor air quality,
2.3 Green Building Concept”Sustainable Development” has become a necessary condition for continuation of the earth; “Healthy and Comfortable” is a necessary circumstance for the continuation of life. Today, building design and construction evolve to more sustainability and as a practice Green building concept has been adopted by many nations and it could be the best way forward in preserving our resources and sustaining our environment. It would be wrong to advocate that the real estate industry has not allowed environmental sustainability in its decision-making. In development, there has been a significant shift towards the production of environmentally sustainable buildings.
Environmentally sustainable buildings, eco-friendly buildings are provided synonyms in Green building.
2.3.1 What is “Green Building”The concept of Green building has been defined by different scholars. According to CITATION Mil13 l 1033 (Samari, et al., 2013), Green building is the foundation of the sustainable construction development. However, Richardson & Lynes (2007) suggest that Green building is a term used to describe a building that is more energy and resource efficient, releases less pollution into the air, soil and water, and is healthier for occupants than standard buildings. According to Yoshida (2010), the green building is a concept for buildings with better environmental performance. Simply we can conclude that Green Buildings are those that are designed to minimize environmental impact throughout the entire lifecycle.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Semantic of Sustainable Developmentleft15811500
Source: CITATION Con12 l 1033 (Conte & Yepes, 2012)Green Buildings which increasing the efficiency in the use of resources such as energy, water and materials while reducing the impact of buildings on human health and its environment during its lifecycle, through better design, construction, operation, maintenance and removal and recycling of waste CITATION Gre11 l 1033 (Green Building Council Sri Lanka, 2011).
2.3.2 Principles of Sustainable ConstructionEnvironment Aspect
In environmental dimension the sustainable approaches are as follow:
Increase material efficiency by reducing the material demand of non-renewable goods
Reduce the material intensity via substitution technologies
Enhance material recyclability
Reduce and control the use and dispersion of toxic materials
Reduce the energy required for transforming goods and supplying services
Support the instruments of international conventions and agreements
Maximize the sustainable use of biological and renewable resources
Consider the impact of planned projects on air, soil, water, flora, and fauna.
In economic dimension the sustainable approaches are as follow:
Consider life-cycle costs
Internalize external costs
Consider alternative financing mechanisms
Develop appropriate economic instruments to promote sustainable consumption
Consider the economic impact on local structures
In social dimension the sustainable approaches are as follow:
Enhance a participatory approach by involving stakeholders
Promote public participation
Promote the development of appropriate institutional frameworks
Consider the influence on the existing social framework
Assess the impact on health and the quality of life.
2.3.4 Green Building standards Most livable counters such as Switzerland, Canada, UK, Japan, USA etc. provide awareness on the concept of Green Building and those countries have developed Green building standards in accordance with their environment. Some of the green building standards in the world are:
UK – BREEAM (BRE Environmental Assessment Method), launched in 1990, is a widely used means of reviewing and improving the environmental performance of buildings.
USA – LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environment Design), owned by the U.S. Green building Council, promotes a whole-building approach by recognizing performance in the sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection, and indoor environment quality.
Japan – CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency), was developed by the Japan Sustainable Building Consortium and introduced in 2004.
Canada – R-2000 is a voluntary national standard whose technical requirements involve three main areas of construction: energy performance, indoor air quality and environmental responsibility.
Accordingly, GREENSL Rating System for built environment which is developed by the Green Building Council of Sri Lanka (GBCSL) and compared LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design which is developed by United State Green Building council (USGBC). when considering about GBCSL, their vision is to transform the construction industry in Sri Lanka with traditional building practice and to fully adopt sustainability as the means by which our environment flourishes, economy prospers and society grown to ensure the future wellbeing of our motherland with the mission, to develop the sustainability of built environment by transforming the way it is planned, designed, constructed, maintained, and operated, and to drive the adoption of green building practices through market- based solution, while helping to forge a new partnership between industry and stakeholders.
2.3.5 Why GREEN rating is important for Sri LankaThe main purpose of the GREEN SL rating system is to encourage the design of building in an environmentally acceptable manner. This will be a major step towards adopting a sustainable practice in developing building to utilize the natural recourses and make efficient designs to utilize nature for the betterment of mankind. most of the resources that are being used today, account for environmental pollution. Therefore, it is time to search for new materials and designs to reduce the impact to the environment. hence this concept will encourage development of environmentally friendly building solution.
the GREEN SL rating system is used to evaluate efficiency of the built environment in the following aspects: management, energy, indoor environmental quality, materials etc. and points are assigned for each category. The rating is given upon the total marks earned by the building solution. In the development process of making Sri Lanka sustainable, the establishment of the GREEN SL rating system is an important milestone. Accordingly, the rating system has to be developed for Sri Lanka to ensure that construction of building will reduce the environment stresses.
Out of that Urban Development Authority is going to introduce Green Building Specifications for Built Environment. Until this movement that has not published in the gazette.
2.3.6 Aspect of Green Buildingthe “Punarudaya” three years National Programme on Environmental conservation is implementing cords of Green Building Guidelines and Green Rating system to creating a greener Sri Lanka. This programme is implemented by Urban Development Authority under the Ministry of Megpolis and Western Development and under the first step all the Government and Semi- Government construction projects (after 9th January 2017) should proceed with the Green Building guideline. And also it is open for Private sector institution as well. In this research, Green Building criteria/ Guidelines of “Green Building Guidelines for Sri Lanka” used for the evaluation purpose.
Accordingly, there are 7 appropriate fields for Sri Lanka. namely,
Sustainable site planning and management
Building Materials and Resources
Quality of the interior Environment of the building
EE1: Zoning of the Lighting Sources/Equipment Energy management is the subjected using areas of light by providing a flexible light control. The cost of the electricity is expected to be reduced by flexible control mechanism only in the utilized areas in a building.
EE2: Electricity sub- Metering To encourage sub – metering to monitor the energy consumption of the main building, all other areas and energy intense equipment.
EE3: Renewable Energy To encourage the reduction of the environmental pollution caused by Cuban dioxide (CO2) emission from fuel consumption by using renewable energy. This will encourage the use of green energy and reduce the demand for new fuel power plants.
EE4: High Performance Energy Efficiency Reduction of energy consumption of a building and thereby minimizing CO2 emission.
EE5: Efficiency of electric Illumination To minimize the efficient use of energy in internal and external illumination.
EE6: Power Factor Correction Avoid incensement of maximum Energy demand
EE7: Improvement and Operation of Energy Efficiency Establishment methods of energy system to achieve its fullest ability to minimize the errors caused in installation and operation procedures.
EE8: Sustainable Maintenance Increasing of energy efficiency by proper maintenance of building energy system.
Sustainable site planning and management
SM1: Site Selection Minimize environmental impact of construction of a building in unsuitable site.
SM2: Abandoned (Brown Field) site Redevelopment Use the abundant building and land for construction in order to reduce the usage of clear land for construction. Ex. Old factory complexes, Garbage dumping site and Mining site.
SM3: Development Density and Community Coordination Protection green lands and lands with threatened environmental system by giving priority for construction of buildings at areas with developed/ improved existing infrastructure. Reducing the private vehicle usage by increasing the development density and reconstruction.
SM4: Preparation of Environmental Management and Environmental safeguard Plan Safeguarding the natural environment, minimizing the impact on natural environment in the construction implementation by following an effective management and safeguard measures.
SM5: Laying and Improvement of Green Ground Cover Assigning of more outdoor open space with the green cover in development initiative and to encourage to use endemic and indigenous trees and plants in the landscape.
SM6: Mitigation of Construction Pollution Controlling of soil erosion, reduction of air pollution caused during construction work by dust and minimizing sediments along canals.
SM7: Quality Assurance in the Building Construction Utilization of quality assessment familiarization by CIDA for building construction. in order to achieve the quality of the construction.
SM8: Workers Facilities To reduce pollution causes by waste generation by the site workers and other discarded materials.
SM9: Minimization the use of Private Vehicles and Encouraging Public Transportation system To reduce pollution causes by increased usage of motor vehicles during a new construction of the building by the planning of using public transportation in the initial design phase.
SM10: Parking Capacity To reduce pollution causes by individual vehicles and to reduce urban traffic congestion by encouraging the use of carpooling and public transport facilities. A minimum number of parking slots should be provided as per requirement at the initial design stage.
SM11: Rain Water Drainage Plan- Quantity and Quality Control Minimizing the impact caused by the water perforation to the ground due to the construction of building and managing the excess rain water. In the initial design stage, a mechanism shall be designed to manage the quality and quantity of the rainwater by retaining the water and by increasing the ground absorption.
SM12: Green Covers and Roofs Minimizing the impact of temperature on human settlement, wildlife habitat, and microclimate by reducing the heat island effect.
SM13: User Manual and Building User Preparation of a user manual to provide information and as a guide to maintain performance for users including green building design. A list of features and strategies.
Building Materials and Resources
MR1: Re-use and selection of materials To encourage reuse of materials as much as possible to reduce the demand for natural resources used as building materials.
MR2: Material Containing recycled substance Encouraging designers to use of recycled materials as much as possible to reduce the demand for natural resources used as building materials
MR3: Re-use of existing building Increasing the lifespan of the building is expected by constructed by conservation of building structure, conservation of resources, maintenance of cultural buildings, conservation and redevelopment. It is also expected to minimize the damages caused to the environment in the new construction and transformation.
MR4: Regionally Available materials for Building construction. To encourage the use of regionally available materials in new building construction, conservation and refurbishment of existing building to minimize environmental impact in the transportation of building materials.
MR5: Sustainable Timer Redacting the devastating impact of the natural forest by growing trees with the high growth rate for timber and use of timber through scientifically accurate quality methods, increasing the life sap of the wood.
MR6: Use of high value Green Building materials Encouraging the use of high value material in development projects to minimize the damage caused to the environment and to the people who use buildings.
MR7: construction Waste Management Encouraging to devise program to manage construction waste by minimizing of construction waste production , recycle and disposal, utilization of construction waste as a filling material
MR8: Refrigerants and Clean Agents To encourage use of materials with zero entry ozone compounds and compounds that minimize the global warming and to identify the above materials.
Quality of the Internal Environment of the Building
EQ1:Monitoring and Controlling of CO2 Improving the health condition of the building uses by providing good ventilation system by measuring CO2 content.
EQ2: Indoor Air Pollutants To minimize advance health effects of the building users by minimizing the use of volatile organic compounds (VOC)
EQ3: Design and Installation of optimum temperature Control unit To maintain the efficiency and comfort of building users by providing a user comfort temperature through designing and maintaining an optimum temperature in the building.
EQ4: Air Change Effectiveness Avoid mixing of inflow and exhausted air to maintain a better ventilation system in the building
EQ5: Day Light To encourage the use of daylight inside the building
EQ6: Controlling the Glare of Intake Sunlight Establishment of glare cut off system of the daylight
EQ7: Electrical Lighting Level To encourage designing f effective and efficient lighting system
EQ8: Internal and External Views To preserve the physical and mental fitness of the building users and to reduce the eyestrain of the users, protect the natural environment and the view. selecting external views suitable for the building when designing a building.
EQ9: Internal Noise Level To maintain the internal noise level of the building in user comforts level.
WE1: Rain water Harvesting To reduce the amount of portable water users, designing of a method of a method to collect rainwater that flows over roof and ground runoff water.
WE2: Waste water Recycling and Efficient Use To reduce pollution caused by releasing wastewater into the environment by encouraging waste water recycling.
WE3: Water Metering and Water Leaks identification System Encourage to design a water supply system with a proper supervision and management
WE4: Water Efficient Equipment Encourage minimizing the consumption of pipe borne drinking water by using efficient Accessories
GI1: Utilization of Innovation In addition to the requirement needed to be in the green evaluation method, to appreciate unique inventions and identification in green building.
Socio – Cultural Compatibility
SC1: Design and Building of Socially and Culturally compatible The architecture of the proposed development shall be compatible with existing architectural context and social context (this covers historically, archeologically significant zones and zones with special architectural value)
Source: CITATION Urb17 l 1033 (UDA, 2017)2.3.7 Application
Green building design can be applied to all type of residential buildings such as:
Residential (Housing & Development)
Industrial (Industrial Parks, Factories, Plants, etc.)
Corporate (Office, Research Centers)
Commercial (Retail: Malls, Shops, Showrooms, Hotels, etc.)
According to the World Green Building Trends Smart Market Report 2016, Green building is nearly one quarter (24%) of the total share of construction activity among the world in the 2015 study. This is much lower than the percentage (38%) reported in the 2012 study published in the 2013. In fact, the 2015 study indicates a strong and growing commitment to green building globally, especially when considering the rising share of green engagement by respondents (69 countries) expected in just three years. The global average of those expecting to do more than 60% of their projects green by 2018 more than doubles over current levels, from 18% to 37%. This is roughly consistent with the level of growth anticipated by the 2012 respondents by 2015, which was nearly double as well.
According to currently available data, since 2010 there are 20 GREENSL certified buildings in Sri Lanka and 29 certifications in LEED certified Buildings in Sri Lanka.
2.3.8 IssuesIssues related to the application of green Building are identified according to the CITATION Mil13 l 1033 (Samari, et al., 2013).
Lack of building codes and regulation Lack of demand
Lack of incentives Lack of expertise
Higher investment cost Lack of professional knowledge
Risk of investment Lack of technology
Higher final price Lack of government support
Lack of credit resources to cover up front cost
Lake of database and information (case study) Lack of strategy to promote green building
Lack of design and construction team
Lack of Public awareness 2.4 Condominium ConceptEvery human living in the earth has set of essential needs and wants for their survival, but food, clouting, shelter show significant important from them. Once play special reference to the shelter, to fulfill it, people need housing. When considering about Sri Lanka, the total land area exists with 65610 km2, but populations have been increasing rapidly (around 21 million). Land has a constant supply over demand. Therefore, we have to allocate limited land for fulfil our needs. At that time problem is arising. It means land becomes scarce resource. Especially, when satisfy housing need, there are large amount of land required for horizontal development. Indeed, people are found vertical development, such as flats, apartments, condominiums as solution for unique supply of land.
According to Condominium Management Authority (2015), The concept of the condominium as a Legal form for the ownership of real property, is one of the most significant developments in respect of law pertaining to real property.
2.4.1 Condominium Development in Sri LankaThe contribution of private developers in condominium development in Sri Lanka has increased due to higher demand and increased profits. According to CITATION Jon11 l 1033 (Jones Lang LaSalle, 2011) , highlighted that The recent upswings in the service sector including, from the finance, tourism and the IT/ITES industry in Colombo have triggered a healthy demand for residential space in the Greater Colombo area. The development of premium condominium projects is most prominent in the CBD, whereas sub-divided developments, row houses and villas in the peripheral suburbs have emerged as preferred assets for investment amongst the middle-income group. Easy availability of housing loans, higher prevailing disposable incomes and investments by Non-resident Sri Lankans have all contributed to the demand for residential properties in the city.
However, it is a western lifestyle of living, brought into urban area of eastern countries due to the lake f serviced land and increased profits. The characteristic that distinguishes the condominium from the other forms of property ownership is that a unit owner also owns an undivided interest with other unit owners in the common elements, which interest cannot be separated from the unit. As a form of real property ownership, condominium requires a comprehensive allocation of rights and responsibilities regarding property use, maintenance, management, administration and the control of human behavior due to the sharing of common areas and close proximity of living.
Due to the lack of prime land availability in the Colombo metropolitan area and due to the convenient in buying a condominium rather than constructing a house, there is a significant demand for the condominium in Sri Lanka. Customers are encouraged to buy a condominium due to several factors such as modern facilities and aesthetic appearance, good location with easy access to city center, affordable prices compared with to buying a land and constructing a house in such a location, time not wasted on construction supervision, secured parking facilities, fixable payment scheme offered by the developers, prestige value, and secured and peaceful neighborhood. Thus more and more property developers tend to invest in condominium projects compared to other types of development. In addition, less risk and high profits encourage developers to invest in this type of development. In the Sri Lankan context, there are four types of condominiums. These are Low-cost, Middle-income, Luxury and super luxury. Those are different from availability of facilities.
2.4.2 Condominium law
Condominium Property Act (No. 12 of 1970), this act provides the procedure for registration of multistoried building. The act has been amended several times by introducing an amendment of Apartment Ownership Law No 11 of 1973, Apartment Ownership (Amendment) Act. No 45 of 1982, Common Amenities Board (Amendment) Act. No 46 of 1982, Apartment Ownership (Special Provisions) Act No 4 of 1999 and Apartment Ownership (special Provisions) Act No. 39 0f 2002 and Apartment Ownership (Amendment)act No. 39 of 2003 in Sri Lanka. In another nation condominium are govern by their specific law.
Condominium Management Authority Law nor the Apartment Ownership Act separately defines the Residential, Commercial, Industrial and the mixed use condominiums. However, in such scenario all condominiums and the condominium parcels must be created under the provisions of the existing Law. The Condominium Management Authority is in the process of drafting necessary regulations to define a residential condominium and a series of other regulations required to be framed to facilitate the developers choosing to create residential condominium and to safeguard the unit owners of residential parcels.
2.4.2 Condominium Management AuthorityThe Condominium Management Authority (CMA), established by a Common Amenities Board (Amendment) Act No. 46 of 1982 on 10th November of 2003 with vision of Productive and efficient operation of the management process for the sustainability of habitable condominium property and mission of Monitoring and management of the management co-operation and its activities for the systematic maintenance of common facilities common amenities of the condominium property for the benefit and welfare of the occupants of such property CITATION Con15 l 1033 (Condominium Management Authority, 2015).
Living in a condominium property is an entirely different experience, unlike living in a house in one’s divided and defined block of land. A condominium dweller is sharing walls, ceiling and floor with his or her immediate neighbors as well as the common areas with all the other unit owners living in the same condominium property. Therefore, to maintain harmony and safeguard the rights of each and every unit owner, it is necessary to have a set of user guideline. Modern humans spend more than ninety percent of their lives indoors, hence buildings are a venue for consumption behavior and are intricately tied into our quality of life and well-being. Building design can directly affect the health, wellbeing of the occupants.so, when constructing the condominium developers have a responsibility to consider about the end user.
2.5 Green Condominium
Simply, the term “Green Condominium” can be defined as a condominium may be developed as a green building in order to mitigate some negative factors to the environment.
According to Karolides (2002), there are numerous advantages associated with the use of Green Building concept from both Environment, Social and economic points of views.
The Environmental benefit for everyone: The benefits of Green Building do not end with the residents and owners who enjoy the pleasing surroundings and lower utility bills. All of us benefit from the way green communities reduce pollution and preserve our natural resources, thereby leading to what is termed green developments.
Keep forest intact: Recycling wood from old buildings using materials made from agricultural waste, and purchasing wood coming from sustainable forests helps reduce the drain on forests.
To cut water consumption by up to 50%: By installing efficient fixtures and using recycled site water to flush toilets and irrigate plants, building owners can cut water use and still maintain attractive landscaping.
Reduce the need for driving: Smart-growth cuts oil use, greenhouse gas emissions, and other pollution from transportation by as much as 50% compared to conventional sprawl.
Reduce pollution runoff into our waterways: Storm water that drags pollution off roofs, driveways and hard surfaces is the leading cause of coastal water contamination and beach closing.
Financial and economic benefits: Green Building provides financial benefits that conventional buildings don’t. These benefits are in the form of energy and water savings. Reduced waste, improved indoor environmental quality, greater employee comfort/productivity, reduced employee health costs and lower operations maintenance costs.
Energy: Energy is a substantial and widely recognized cost of building operations, that can be reduced through energy efficiency and related measures. Evidence provide Green Building use 30% less energy when compared to conventional buildings.
Health and Productivity Benefits: Green Building is not only about energy, but also about health, comfort and productivity in addition to the environment. As people spend 90% of their time indoors and the concentration of pollutants indoors is typically higher than outdoors, sometimes by as much as 10 or even 100 times.
CHAPTER FOURData Analysis4.1 IntroductionThis Chapter contains with the analysis of data according to the objectives of the study. The study area is the Colombo district, which is the commercial city of Sri Lanka. The government sector is starting to take measures recognizing the value of sustainability under President Mr. Maithreepala Sirisena’s 3 years Environmental Conservation National Programme ” Punarudaya”, there is a ” Green Building Rating System for government construction” for certifying the government and Semi- government buildings as an attempt of developing a sustainable Sri Lanka called as “Blue Green Sri Lanka”.For the purpose of this research questionnaire have been used to determine a baseline of the developers’ awareness of application of green building features in condominiums through evaluating the existing application and barriers. To accomplished that objectives structured questionnaire is used and it consist with 18 questions under three parts. First part illustrates that the general information about development companies, the second part covers the objective of evaluating existing application. It was done using 43 of green building indicators under seven main categories. Third part support to fulfilling the third objective that was evaluating the existing barriers.
On the other hand, primary data are collected from existing condominium householders for the purpose of evaluating awareness on Green Features. This questionnaire consisted with 12 questions, including demographic details. Therefore, Surveys may also be used to determine current awareness levels.
Approximately, there are fifty condominium developers identified and fifteen from them are randomly selected from them and also 40 householders are randomly selected to fill out the objectives.
The first objective of the research study is to study the preference of condominium households about green living. So, below descriptive analysis shows the result of the questionnaire survey.
Demographic details about 40 respondents are illustrated below.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1 :Cross Tabulation of Gender and AgeGender Total
Male Female Age 20 – 30 Count 0 5 5
% of Total .0% 12.5% 12.5%
31 – 40 Count 2 8 10
% of Total 5.0% 20.0% 25.0%
41 – 50 Count 8 7 15
% of Total 20.0% 17.5% 37.5%
51 and above Count 7 3 10
% of Total 17.5% 7.5% 25.0%
Total Count 17 23 40
% of Total 42.5% 57.5% 100.0%
According to the above table majority of respondents are female and it is about 57.5% of the total response. Most of the respondents are within the 41 – 50 age category it is about 37.5%.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Level of educationFrequency Percentage Cumulative Percent
Valid A/L 3 7.5 7.5
Diploma holder 5 12.5 20.0
Graduate 7 17.5 37.5
Post graduate 18 45.0 82.5
Master or other 7 17.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 Postgraduate is the most of the respondent’s education level. It is about 45% from total responses and 18 responds from 40.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3: ProfessionFrequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Private company employee 10 25.0 25.0
Business owner 13 32.5 57.5
Professional 12 30.0 87.5
Non 5 12.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 Most of the respondents are doing their own business and it is percentage about 32.5%. 30% of respondents are professionals and 25% of respondents are private company employees.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Consideration of environmental aspect before buying:
Most of the respondents are sometime considered about the environmental aspect before buying their apartment unit. It is about 45% and 35% of respondents are not considered about the environmental aspect before buying.
Below figure shows the respondents’ awareness about Green building and most of the respondents slightly aware about green building. It is about 37.5% and lest percentage it means only 7.5% are extremely aware about Green Buildings. Accordingly, can be concluded general public has less awareness about Green Building.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Awareness about Green Buildingleft8890
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4:Resident in a Green condominiumFrequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid No 40 100.0 100.0 100.0
According to the result all of the respondents are not living in a Green Condominium at present context.
Below figure shows the best type of green condominium for living. According to the respondent’s opinion the best type of condo is Luxury it means most of them are like to resident in Luxury condominiums. It is about 35% and 25% of them are said Super Luxury type is the best type of application of Green.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: The best type Green Condominium
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5: Level of Important of Green Building Features Green Features Mean Std. Deviation Rank
Energy efficiency 4.45 .714 3
Sustainable site planning and Management 4.25 .742 5
Materials and Resource Management 4.75 .439 1
Quality and building environment 4.45 .714 3
Water efficiency 4.55 .504 2
Green Innovation 4.23 .768 6
Socio-cultural compatibility 4.38 .740 4
According to the respondent’s opinion all of the green features are in between important and very important category. According to the output given, material and resource management is the most significance green feature. After that, water efficiency, Energy efficiency, Quality and building environment, Socio-cultural compatibility, Sustainable site planning and Management and Green Innovation are relatively important respectively.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4left196215: Willingness to pay more for the GreenThe majority of the respondents are willing to pay more than 0-10% additional payment for the Green. 30% are willing to pay 10-20% more for the Green and 12.5% are willing to pay 20-30% additional for the Green.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6: Green Features that are willing to pay more for GreenMean Std. Deviation
Energy efficiency 4.70 .464
Sustainable site planning and Management 4.73 .452
Materials and Resource Management 4.58 .501
Quality and building environment 4.45 .783
Water efficiency 4.70 .464
Green Innovation 4.70 .464
Socio-cultural compatibility 4.38 .705
According to the results, Respondents pay higher agreement to pay more Sustainable site planning and Management. After that they pay similar agreement to pay more Energy efficiency, Water efficiency and Green Innovation and they pay lest agreement to pay more for the Socio-cultural compatibility.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 7: Barriers that are holding back from choosing Green Condominiums over Conventional CondominiumsMean Std. Deviation Rank
Price 4.45 .504 2
Lack of information 4.42 .675 3
Cost saving 3.83 .675 8
Fear of name Green Building 4.32 .474 5
Lack of interest 3.78 .891 10
Lack of efficiency 4.07 .829 7
Unwillingness to change 3.82 1.130 9
Limited options 4.37 .925 4
Reliability of renewable energy sources 4.15 .770 6
Lack of supply 4.68 .474 1
According to the above table, the main barrier that respondents are holding back from choosing Green Condominiums over Conventional Condominiums is lack of supply. After that Price, Lack of information, Limited options etc. make significant effect to households to holding back from the Green. The lest effect is done the interest of householders.
The second objective of the research is to evaluate the level of application of green features in selected residential condominiums in Colombo in line the Green Building Guidelines for Sri Lanka. For the accomplishment of that purpose univariate analysis is done and Condominium development companies are the respondents.
According to below figure 27.3% had developed green condominiums while 72.7% have not developed green condominiums. Thus the majority of developers have not developed green condominiums.
2857522860000Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Green Condominiums Developed
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 8: Green image gives an advantage in the marketMean Std. Deviation
Green image give advantage 4.09 .701
Most of the respondents agree with the statement green image give a distinctive advantage in the marketplace.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6 : The best type of Condominium for the application of Green
According to the above figure Green Building features are applicable for all types of condominiums. 45.6% of developers are agreeing with that. And 27,3% are said that most suitable type of condo is Super Luxury.
left201930Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7:Minimum number of floors
The majority of the developers said that the most effective number of floors for application of green features is 1-10 floors.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 9: Level of application of Energy Efficiency FeathersMean Std. Deviation
Energy Efficiency – 1.1 4.18 .603
Energy Efficiency – 1.2 4.27 .647
Energy Efficiency – 1.3 3.82 .982
Energy Efficiency – 1.4 4.09 .701
Energy Efficiency – 1.5 3.91 .701
Energy Efficiency – 1.6 4.18 .603
Energy Efficiency – 1.7 3.91 .539
1.1 Energy management by providing a flexible light fitting system – zoning of lighting sources/ equipment
1.2 Encourage electrical Sub-Metering to monitor the energy consumption
1.3 Use of renewable Energy
1.4 To maximize the efficiency of Electric Illumination
1.5 Avoid any increment of maximum energy demand – Power factor correction
1.6 Optimize energy efficiency
1.7 Increasing of energy efficiency by sustainable maintenance of building energy systems.
According to the above table zoning of lighting sources is highly applied under energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, power factor correction and sustainable maintenance are least applied in green condominiums.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 10: Level of application of Sustainable Site Planning and Management FeaturesMean Std. Deviation
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.1 3.82 1.328
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.2 2.91 .831
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.3 4.00 1.000
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.4 4.18 .751
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.5 4.00 .894
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.6 4.27 .467
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.7 4.45 .688
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.8 4.27 .647
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.9 2.91 1.375
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.10 3.00 1.183
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.11 2.91 1.375
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.12 4.27 .647
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.13 4.00 .775
Sustainable site planning and Management – 2.14 4.00 1.000
2.1 Proper site Selection, minimizing environmental impact of construction in unsuitable sites.
2.2 Use of abandoned lands and buildings or redevelopment of damaged lands in construction.
2.3 Construction of buildings in developed areas where there is a community connectivity.
2.4 Adopt environmental Management and safeguard measures in construction.
2.5 Laying and improvement of green ground cover.
2.6 Mitigation of construction pollution by controlling soil erosion and air pollution.
2.7 Utilization of quality assurance in building construction
2.8 Provide adequate facilities for site workers.
2.9 Minimize the use of private vehicles and encourage public transport usage.
2.10 Promote using green vehicles.
2.11 Provide minimum number of parking slots by encouraging public transport facilities.
2.12 Control the amount of rainwater perforation to the ground through a drainage plan
2.13 Encourage green covers on ground and roofs
2.14 Provide User’s manual for building users
According to the above table Utilization of quality assurance in building construction is highly applied and Use of abandoned lands and buildings or redevelopment of damaged lands in construction is least applied in green condominiums.
3.1 Meet minimum Indoor Air Quality requirements that contribute to the comfort and well-being of the occupants.
3.2 Improve health conditions of users by monitoring and controlling CO2 level.
3.3 Design and installation of Optimum Temperature Control units by providing a user comfort temperature.
3.4 Encourage the use of daylight inside the building.
3.5 Control the uncomfortable glare of Intake Sunlight
3.6 To encourage designing and using of effective and efficient electric Lighting levels
3.7 Protect the natural environment and internal and External Views
3.8 To maintain the internal Noise level of the building in user comfort levels.
According to the above graph indicator protect the natural environment and internal and External Views is highly applied. Improve health conditions of users by monitoring and controlling CO2 level is least applied in green condominiums.
4.1 To encourage the reuse and selection of materials to reduce the demand for natural resources.
4.2 Encourage using materials containing recycled substance
4.3 Re-use of existing buildings
4.4 Use regionally available materials for building construction
4.5 Use sustainable timber through certified timber products
4.6 Managing construction waste
4.7 Use high value green building materials
4.8 Use rapidly renewable materials
Managing construction waste is highly applied while re use of buildings is least applied in condominiums.
5.1 Design a method to collect rainwater that flows over roof and ground run off water – Rainwater Harvesting
5.2 Encourage waste water Recycling
5.3 Water Efficiency tools equipment for limiting and eliminating the use of portable water.
5.4 Adopt a water metering and leak detection system
Rainwater harvesting is highly applied under water efficiency and portable water usage is least applied in condominiums.
1 Utilize unique and creative innovations in green buildings
Utilization of green innovation is moderately applied in residential condominiums.
1 Ensure buildings maintain and improve socio well-being, public health and safety.
According to above graph socio cultural compatibility factor has gained a high applicable level in condominiums.
For the accomplishment of third objective of to identify major barriers faced by the developers regarding the application of Green Building Features below analysis is done.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 11: BarriersMean Std. Deviation Rank
Lack of building codes 3.91 .944 4
Lack of incentives 3.82 1.471 5
Higher investment cost 4.09 1.136 2
Risk of investment 3.64 1.286 8
Higher final cost 4.00 1.183 3
Lack of credit resources 3.36 1.362 9
Lack of public awareness 4.00 .894 3
Lack of demand 3.73 1.191 7
Lack of strategy 4.27 .647 1
Lack of design and construction 3.73 .905 7
Lack of Expertise 3.82 1.079 5
Lack of professional knowledge 4.00 1.000 3
Lack of database and information 3.64 1.206 8
Lack of technology 3.73 1.348 7
Lack of government support 3.80 1.398 6
The main barrier they faced is Lack of strategy. Secondly, Higher investment cost is selected as Extremely Barrier. Lack of professional knowledge, Lack of public awareness, Higher final cost are moderately marries.
References BIBLIOGRAPHY Kongkajaroen, P., Panichpathom, S. ; Ngarmyarn, A., 2014. The Attitude of Intention to purchase Green Condominium by Generation Y consumers.
Ajatar, U., 2000. Project Impacts and Mitigation – A challenge for Nigerian Construction Practioners in the 3 Millennium. Environmental Review,, Volume 3, pp. 343-349.
Anon., n.d. Gap analysis of green features in condominium between potential householders and rel estate agents.
Bombugala, B. ; Atputharajah, A., 2010. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GREEN BUILDING CONCEPT IN SRI LANKA, Kandy: International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE-2010).
Chendo, N. A., 2013. Managers’ Perception of Environmental Sustainability in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs): Implication for Competitive Marketing Advantages for Sachet Water Manufacturers in Anambra State, Nigeria.. European Journal of Business and Management, Volume 5, pp. 186-195.
Condominium Management Authority, C., 2015. Condominium, Colombo: Condominium Management Authority.
Conte & Yepes, V., 2012. Green Buildings: Analysis of State of Knowledge. International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Volume 1, pp. 27-32.
Diesendorf, M., 2000. Sustainability and Sustainable Development. Sustainability: The corporate challenge of the 21st century, pp. 19-37.
Green Building Council Sri Lanka, 2011. Green rating system for built environment, Sri Lanka: Green building council Sri Lanka.
Hill, M., 2003. Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. USA, McGraw-Hill Publication.
Hsieh, Y. (., 2012. Hotel companies’ environmental policies and practices: a content analysis of their web pages. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(1), pp. 97-121.
Jones Lang LaSalle, C., 2011. Real estate in Sri Lanka Prospect and Potentaial, Colombo: JLL.
Jones, S. A., 2016. World Green Building Trends 2016, North America: Dodge Data ; Analytics.
Karolides, A., 2002. Project Planning ; Cost Estimating, In: Green Building Approaches in Green Building, USA: RS Means Co Ltd.
Kriss, J., 2014 . What is Green Building?. Online Available at: https://www.usgbc.org/articles/what-green-building
Ramya R. Aroul, J. A. H., 2012. the value of the “Green”: evidence from the first mandatory residential green building programe. JRER, Volume 34.
RanjithDissanayake, P., n.d. GREEN BUILDINGS FOR SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN SRI LANKA GREENSL? OR LEED?.
Richardson, G. R. ; Lynes, J. K., 2007. Institutional motivations and barriers to the constructionof green buildings on campus. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 8(3), pp. 339-354.
Samari, M. et al., 2013. The Investigation of the Barriers in Developing Green Building in Malaysia. Modern Applied Science, 7(2).
sharachchandra, M., 1991. Sustainable Development: A Critical Review. World Development, 19(6), pp. 607-621.
Silva, S. D. ; Sahasrabudhe, V., 2017. Sri Lanka – Land of Real Estate Opportunities, Colombo: Jones Lang LaSalle Property Consultant (Lanka) Pvt Limited.
UDA, 2017. Blue Green Sri Lanka, Green building guildling for Sri Lanka. 1st ed. Colombo: Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Envirenment and UDA.
Waidyasekara K.G.A.S,Fernando W.N.J.K, 2014. BENEFITS OF ADOPTING GREEN CONCEPT FOR CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS IN SRI LANKA, s.l.: s.n.
World Economic Forum Industry Agenda Council, S., 2016. Environmental Sustainability Principles for the Real Estate Industry, Switzerland: World Economic Forum.
Yoshida, J., 2010. Which “Greenness” is Valued? Evidence from green condominium in tokyo.