In were questioned about their loyalty. The

In American during the 1950’s political, ethnic, and industry loyalties and divisions were significantly influenced by anti-Communist fervor. The Cold War was a time when the opposing ideologies created high tensions between capitalist America and Communist USSR. Fears were fueled by external and internal perceived threats. Fear of external attack by Communist aggression against American Capitalist ideology ran high because the soviet Union had an atomic bomb that could destroy America. The internal threat from spies who might try to bring communism into the United States. The fear-driven, repressive climate, called the Red Scare lead to accusations and mistrust among people in the United States, both citizens and especially foreigners. The Hollywood industry, people with left-leaning (force as opposed to freedom) political beliefs, and even people within the US government and Armed Forces were questioned about their loyalty. The Red Scare had a significant impact on American society, culture, and politics.Body 1 – Soviet Union’s atomic bomb, USSR – detonates atomic bomb 1949 US atomic program soviet spies giving info to Russia to create it, The fear of communism and spy infiltration caused people in the US to have  more conservative politics and associations to avoid being branded a spy or Communist sympathizer. The threat of Russian spies or US citizens sympathetic to the Communist cause working within the US to bring down government was a real threat. The fear of spies led to discrimination against people perceived to have any connection to communism. This would cause other people to disassociate from anyone implicated out of fear of accusation and lead to an increase in conservatism regarding personal and political associations. This fear of being wrongly accused was real as some used the Red Scare as an opportunity to take out political opponents. For example the NAACP civil rights organization was banned in Mississippi and Alabama as a communist associated organization. Even Martin Luther King, Jr. was labeled a Communist in the hope of weakening his cause and associating civil rights demonstrations with Communism. This shows how some groups would use the fear to take advantage and weaken groups or individuals with opposing political beliefs.The fear of Communism itself was influencing the US government to become more force-based than freedom-based society. The fear of spies within American leadership and the threat of the possibility that they might be sending secrets to Russia caused new government policy to be formed. In the late 1940’s, Harry S. Truman gave the executive order (the Loyalty Order) the set the stage to drive the fear-fueled accusations against many people within the government. Federal employees were examined to prove their loyalty to the government. Senator McCarthy made many accusations about people being spies for Russia without any supporting evidence. He claimed to have a list of 205 communists within the State Department and attacks against the US Army.  The Army used nationally televised hearings to discredit McCarthy and fight the unfounded accusations.Hollywood society accused of spy infiltration blacklisted actors and directors for communist affiliations and they were not able to work in their industry.  The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) also investigated many artists and entertainers because it was rumored that the entertainment industry had many communists and communist sympathizers. Artist and entertainers were not allowed to work until they confessed their loyalty to America and swore they were not affiliated with any communist groups or activities. Anyone that could possibly be linked with communist activities or ideas was treated with hate and several people lost their jobs based on accusations alone. Arthur Miller was among the writers in the Hollywood industry and was questioned by the HUAC then held in contempt of court for refusing to cooperate and give names of communists. Today he admits supporting Communist groups. However, Communism has not taken hold as feared and it is the identification of the US people with freedom that won out over the communist politics of force.   Conclusion: The divisions in the country caused many to leave the country, lose jobs, or even their lives. Government propaganda focused on fear to get people to distrust people different from themselves or who they did not know well, often foreigners. Federal employees were intensely scrutinized for communist ties. Loyalty was questionedAmericans also felt the effects of the Red Scare on a personal level, and thousands of alleged communist sympathizers saw their lives disrupted. They were hounded by law enforcement, alienated from friends and family and fired from their jobs. While a small number of the accused may have been aspiring revolutionaries, most others were the victims of false allegations or had done nothing more than exercise their democratic right to join a political party. Though the climate of fear and repression began to ease in the late 1950s, the Red Scare has continued to influence political debate in the decades since and is often cited as an example of how unfounded fears can compromise civil liberties.


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