In addressable sensor electrodes, thus simplifying immunoarray design

                In thistalk James F. Rusling talked about early cancer detection by using microfluidicarrays.

In addition to high sensitivity, selectivity, and multiplexity alreadyachieved in some bioanalytical systems, routine POC protein diagnostics willrequire full automation at a low cost per assay. This is more straightforwardwith ECL than with other electrochemical detection methods because ECL does notrequire individually addressable sensor electrodes, thus simplifyingimmunoarray design and electrical components.                ECLdetection has been adapted in microfluidic immunoarrays to detect proteinsutilizing silica beads with containing Ru(bpy)3 2+ dyeand coated with antibodies for detection. The trategy for ECL protein detectionin a microfluidic array starts with the microwell-patterned pyrolytic graphitechip equipped with counter and reference electrodes.

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Single-wall carbon nanotubeforests are grown in the wells, then capture antibodies are attached to theircarboxylated ends. A pump delivers sample to the array, and proteins arecaptured on specific spots by the antibodies.                Theydesigned an automated reagent and sample delivery module in an ECL-basedmicrofluidic system for detection of proteins.

The well pattern is computer generatedand laser-jet printed onto glossy paper, then heat transferred onto the PGchip. The computer ink pattern is hydrophobic enough so that it encloses thehydrophilic carbon wells and prevents aqueous solution run-over andcross-contamination during SWCNT growth and antibody attachment.                Currentpractice in diagnosing cancer relies mainly on biopsies, identifying patientsymptoms or lesions, and in vivo imaging. These approaches often requirelocating a tumor, making detection difficult and compromising therapy outcomeswhen detection occurs at advanced stages. If biomarkers are used at all, testsare often limited to only one or two proteins.

Recent research has shown thathigh sensitivity and good accuracy is possible to achieve using ECL and other detectionapproaches. However, low cost, assay simplification, and full automation arejust beginning to be addressed in the context of POC devices.

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