In order for theendorsement to be successful, credibility and attractiveness of celebrity isvery important. Credibility is represented by knowledge, skills and expertiseconcerning the products while attractiveness includes likeability, familiarityand similarity of celebrity with the products or brand. The credibility of the celebrity or thespokesperson in an advertisement plays an important role in convincing the consumersto purchase the product or consider the product for use. Consumers usually paysmore attention to the celebrities whom they like, know, and have expertise onthe product which a celebrity has endorsed (Hung, 2014).Nevertheless, selecting a suitable and perfectcelebrity to endorse a product or brand is not an easy task.
There are manyresearches have been done so far in order to help on the construction of aguideline model to select the endorser. Consumer’s perception of thecredibility of endorsers depends on expertise, knowledge and trust (Mikuláš& Sv?tlík, 2016). When the celebrities have a higher credibility, consumerswill have positive effects on the purchase intention. Furthermore,trustworthiness is also one of the aspect of credibility which help to reducethe unfavorable feeling towards a brand.
Hovland and his associates has presented thesource-credibility model in year 1953. They analyzed the factors that led tothe perceived credibility of the communicator and determined that there are twofactors which are expertise and trustworthiness. Besides trustworthinessand expertise, the attractiveness of the communication source can make theeffect of the message conveyed increase. In source of attractiveness model, it meansthat the acceptance of an advertising message by the audience is based onfamiliarity, likeability and similarity. Familiarity is defined as knowledge ofthe celebrity through exposure in the media; likeability as affection for thecelebrity as a result of the celebrity’s physical appearance and/or behaviour;and similarity as a supposed resemblance between the celebrity and the targetedaudience (Mc Cracken, 1989).Expertise refersto the extent to which a communicator is perceived to possess knowledge,skills, qualifications, or experience and is therefore considered to provideaccurate information.
Trustworthiness refers to the audience’s confidence thatthe source provides information in an objective and honest manner, andattractiveness refers to how physically attractive, elegant, or likable thesource is to the audience. Therefore, endorsers who are perceived to beknowledgeable, reliable, and attractive are considered credible, inconsequence, able to evoke consumers’ positive attitudinal and behaviouralresponses to the brand and the product (Ohanian, 1991). Shimp argues that celebrity endorsers are believedby the consumers and audience due to the life they live professionally andpersonally, as revealed to the general public through the mass media (Shimp,2003). From the research done byIngavale, the result revealed that preference of consumers in India for thecosmetics endorsed by celebrities is influenced by trustworthiness, sense ofsimilarity between customer and celebrity, familiarity, likability, relevanceof celebrity to the product (Ingavale, 2016). Hence, advertisers are requiredto consider those celebrities for their product endorsement who aretrustworthy, liked by consumers, familiar, and have relevance with product.A research hasstudied the impact of celebrity endorsement and has found that the expertise of a celebrityendorser is not an important factor in influencing Malaysian young adults’purchase intentions (Karen S. Freeman & Cathy C.
Chen, 2015). RelativelyMalaysian young consumers are more emphasize on the physical attractiveness ofa celebrity followed by similarity and familiarity. Over half of the consumerswill purchase the product if they are more familiar with the celebrity.