In Indonesia, English is not used only for the practical purpose but also for the interpersonal communication. It works as the Business Language as well as the Lingua Franca, which can be defined as a language widely adopted for communication to link up the people from all around the world to share information. It is widely accepted that fluency in English language is a key to success in life. Considering the importance of English, it should be taught in the schools as a foreign language.(Shams, 2008)defines there are some factors that in?uence the learning processing foreign language learning context, such as motivation, attitudes and learning achievements. Moreover, learner’s attitude is known as one of the most important factors that impact on learning a language.
According to (Latchanna, 2009), attitude is defined as a mental state that includes beliefs and feelings which means that attitude has been identified as one of the crucial factors in learning a foreign language. Moreover, (Kara, 2009) defines that attitudes towards learning besides opinions have an influence on students’ behaviors and consequently on their performance which means that positive attitude facilitate students language learning and vice versa, if students do not have the interest in acquiring target language, this student will have a negative attitude and will not be enthusiastic in learning language. Thus, learners’ attitudes could incorporate in language learning because it may in?uence their performance in acquiring the target language. This study looks for the concept of attitude as one of the affective factors for success in learning a foreign language. More specifically, it investigates in MACI Amanatul Ummah Surabaya.
MACI Amanatul Ummah is an Islamic boarding school in Surabaya that has an educational aim to gives priority to the foreign language learning especially English to be used in their social environment. The English learning system of this school is different with others. Students are not only about attending the class every morning and end in the mid day, but they learn language all day. They are obliged to stay in the dorm at the school area and speak English to practice English in their daily life.
Many studies have been conducted to explore the students’ attitudes towards learning foreign language in general. For instance, (Shams, 2008) conducted a study to examine students’ attitudes, motivation and anxiety towards learning English. The result showed that students had positive attitudes and high enthusiasm towards English which emphasized the value of English language efficiency in the daily life and (Gitawaty, 2010) also stated that there is correlation between students’ attitude and their achievement in learning English. In those previous studies above, it showed that attitude is closely related to learning which can affect learning. Therefore, the researcher expects to fill a gap, Do the students who have positive attitude will implement their positive acts toward English in their daily life? Or do they did the opposite?. Because of this reason, this study was aimed to identify how is the students’ attitude toward L1, L2 and L3 and their language practices outside the school hours. It will also describe in depth the correlation between their language attitude and their achievement in learning English. The researcher addressed the following research questions:
1. How is the students’ attitude toward L1, L2, L3?
2. What is their language used out of school hours in relation to their attitude?
3. Is there any correlation between their language attitudes in their learning achievement?
This paper contains of five chapters, chapter I is introduction, it covers General background, previous studies, research gap and research problem. Chapter II talks about the literature review. Chapter III describes the method and methodology which is used in conducting the research. It covers the research design, participants, instrument, data collection technique, and data analysis. The researcher will describe them one by one. Chapter IV is about result and discussion. Chapter V is conclusion of the paper.
1. Theoretical Framework
Language is a part of human life that cannot be separated. Language is the most important thing for human communication (Whatmough, 1957). They use language to express their thought and communicate with others.It means that language has meaning which is able to be expressed by thoughts about what somebody needs or want. It consists of information that can be accepted by the deliverer and that receiver within dealing. It can be concluded that Language is really important for human being because it is a tool for communication between people to understand one another.
1.2 Attitude and Language Attitude
Attitude is an expression of respect or disrespect toward a place, person, thing or event. According to (Rasyid, 2015) Attitude is rather permanent way of thinking, feeling or behaving towards someone or something. It means that attitude is response or tendency by relatively way to people, thing or etc. Attitude is also measurable and changeable which can influence the person’s emotion and behavior. If the students have positive attitude, it becomes the good beginning for the learning and teaching process and vice versa(Kara, 2009).In general, the concept of attitude in psychology defined as an evaluation of positive or negative toward thing or people. According to (Ahmadi, 2009)attitude involves three components that interact with the object. These components include:
1. Cognitive component, associated with knowledge, beliefs or thoughtsthat are based on information associated with the object. For instance: knowledge that they receive and their understanding in the process of language learning.
2. Affective component, refers to the emotional dimension of attitudes,emotions are associated with the object. Here the object perceivedas pleasant or unpleasant. For instance: students express whether they like or dislike the situation or materials of teaching learning process.
3. Behavior component involving one of predisposition toact towards the object, it deals with the skill. For instance: it is about the way one react in particular reaction.
1.3 L1 , L2, L3
L1 is known as a mother tongue, it is the first language that we learn when we are a baby. In Indonesia context, L1 defines as language from the ethnic minority. For instance, people in east java has Javanese as their L1, people in West Java has Sudanese as their L1, etc.
Language that learners learn after they have acquired their mother tongue – or first language (L1) – is referred as second language (L2) and in this term L2 can be define as Bahasa Indonesia as the official and national language. For the target language or foreign language (L3) refers to English as an international language. Many people believe that learning English will provide more opportunities for socio-economicbene?ts (Kirkpatrick, 2010). Thus, in educational context for some institution, students are expected master English well.
1.4 Students’ Achievement
Achievement is the students’ ability after he received a learning experience. Students’ achievement are changes include the areas of cognitive,affective and psychomotor oriented experienced by students (Sudjana, 2005). Moreover, (King, 1998) stated that “Achievement is considered as the drive and energy students bring to school work in desire to make progress in their learning and achievement.” In other words, achievement deals with changing of students’ behavior in their knowledge, skill and attitude in learning after they have followed teaching learning process in particular period of time.