In recent centuries

In recent centuries, there has been numerous of management theories produced to help us shape our perceptions of managing in the business environment. These various theories created have benefited managers in seeking new methods of organising and managing its workers. The prominent theories include Scientific Management theory by Frederick Taylor the Human Relation theory of Elton Mayo. The similarities they both have is the goal to boost productivity in the business. Their methods are different as scientific management does it in strict manner at the expense of workers energy and human relations focuses building relationship and cooperation among workers.
Frederick Winslow Taylor created Scientific Management with the goal of boosting the company’s productivity and lowering labour cost. Taylor describes Scientific Management for the leader knowing what its workers want to do in the quick, optimum and cheapest way as possible (Lumen Learning, 2013). The attributes of Scientific Management includes being well organised, rejects traditional management, being strict on rules and enhances the efficiency of workers (EL, Haber 2016 pp.43). Its systematic approach focuses on the production process and its systematic flow through recruiting and training right employees and then designating them in a specialised area that suits them to ultimately production process efficient. Best example includes the creator of the Ford Company Henry Ford used this type of management for creating cars. Discard traditional management is another quality of this management which abandons other traditional techniques utilised by other companies in order to improve the efficiency of the employee in the business. Another characteristic includes strict compliance with rules and procedures made by the employer, making the workers work like machines and are strictly observed by the employer (Lumen Learning, 2013). Scientific Management was produced by Taylor to ultimately improve employee’s efficiency and productivity at work and cutting down the expenses of cost of labour through employees working and behaving like a machine.
Human Relations theory was created by Professor Elton May, with the goal of improving the workers productivity, but not through behaving like robots. It was introduced to address and overcome the issues Scientific Management was facing. Human Relations highlights that employees should be treated like humans and not machines (Human relations approach, 2014). The characteristic of this management theory includes employees expressing their own individuality, informal organisation and participative management. Employees are a core element of the business in relations to their capacities. If employees receive recognition and appreciation on their hard work it could result to increase in productivity and they will be expressing various ideas to boost the businesses success and achieve their objectives. Informal organisation deals with informal social aspects on workers collaborating and communicating together rather than being dictated on the job you do. It leads to a massive interaction being employees in and out of business, strong satisfaction in work will lead to more inspiration and stronger productivity (Matt Petryni 2018).If the workers don’t work together it results to the business being disjointed as workers will have no idea on their role, no direction on where they want to be and an outbreak of incessant dissent where employees feel unhappy and unsecured. Participative management means the individual is directly involved in decision making. This concept is based on workers devoting their time to the workplace, through the time and experience in the workplace it gives them the opportunity to express their views and due importance should be given to them by the management while making policies (Matt Petryni 2018). Human Relation theory was introduced to promote the idea that workers are humans and should be treated with respect and dignity and it also promotes team work for the business.
There are many differences between Scientific Management and Human Relations. The most blatant is in Scientific Management theory, this theory treats employee like a robotic slaves while Human Relation emphasises that workers are human and therefore they should treated like human being and also focused with the worker’s needs. These management theories have motivated people in different ways such as Taylor’s promise to double the worker’s wages (Sky mark, 2012), while Mayo states “the organizational output is determined by the human relations at work and not by the economic and technological conditions of workplace” (The Economist, 2008). It explains that if the communication and cooperation in the industry is good then the workers will be more enthusiastic to get their work fast and get more done than they expect. The third difference is Taylor’s approach encourages the employees to comply with the rules and Human Relation approach encourages employees to get involved in making decisions that would benefit the business. The last difference is that Taylor’s approach focuses on workers working individually on their designated work (Sky mark, 2012), while Human Relation approach encourages employees to work together to develop friendship in the workplace. Scientific Management and Human Relation go against each other because Human Relations is trying to overcome the issues which Scientific Management is subjected to regarding the treatment on workers.
Taylor got the idea of scientific management through examining the efficiency of shovelling. He conducted time studies see the best weight that a worker should lift in a shovel was 21 pounds. As there is spectrum of materials the shovel would be sized to determine if it would hold 21 pounds and the workers were provided with the best shovels (Net MBA, 2000). It led to the increase in productivity and workers gained increased wages. He integrated his shovel learning experience on the production which allowed for a dramatic reduction in factory staff while sustaining productivity (Net MBA, 2000). Productivity has increased at the cost of the workers energy. In contrast to the Human Relations Approach does not put the employees in risk. Taylor’s management approach selects workers based on their strength and agility rather than through their qualities and capabilities. Human Relation does the opposite and provides the workers with power and motivation whereas Scientific Management does the opposite and subjects them to repetitive work and lowers their confidence.
In the 1920s Mayo conducted a number of experiments called the Hawthorn Studies. These studies took place in a factory where he investigates the different conditions of how the workers work and observe their effect on productivity. The most famous experiment, the Relay Assembly Test Room and it was a tiny group made of six women. The group was observed under constant fluctuations of the environment and studies have shown that output is increased whenever changes emerge despite the change being good or bad (Hawthorne Studies pp.5). It concludes through communication the workers were able to self-motivate themselves and improve the environment.
In 1943, Abraham Maslow discovered a theory of motivation through the hierarchy of needs. The hierarchy includes “in the order of physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, self-actualisation” (The Five Level 2018). This theory portrays that these elements needs to be satisfied prior to growing a need of inspiration. Physiological element deals with survival such as a need of shelter, food. After that comes the feeling of being safe and secured. The first two elements is what scientific management deals with as this form of management provides motivation for people to work due to getting money for food, water and security for them and their family. The third element involves the people feeling love in their life which results to feeling of belonging where they should be would create stronger production through more employee output and provides with strong confidence. The last one self-actualisation is accomplished through creating and pursuing personal goals that would bring progression and motivation into the workplace (The Five Level 2018). It shows that the employees gets strong motivation if they are satisfied with these five elements, if one element is missing then the employee will be less committed to their job and the company’s production process would slow down and cause problem if one person is not committed (Learning Theories 2014) .
To conclude, the organization’s success depends on the employer keeping the employees happy and motivated to achieve their outcomes. The difference between these two theories is that scientific management theory is systematic management, rejects traditional management and requires strict compliance of rules. While human relations theory focuses individuality, informal organizations, and participative management. The main differences of this two theories and those differences are based on how employee treated, how they are motivated, how employees involvement in the management and how employee are carrying out a task. The main similarity of these two theories is focused on inspiring employees to ultimately boost productivity in the workplace. Scientific management is not effective today, due to alternative management techniques and people are not willing to put themselves at risk nowadays, whereas human relations is used by companies encouraging communication, cooperation and equality not repetitive robotic work.

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