In the introduction of educationalpsychology, we take an overview of educational psychology and itsapplications in teaching. We first define its scope , its procedure and thenits content.Firstly, what is educationalpsychology??ü According to B. F.
Skinner, “It is the branchof psychology which deals with teaching and learning”.ü According to Guy Lefrancois, author ofpsychology for teaching (2011), “Educational psychology is the branch ofpsychology that studies human behavior in educational settings”.Educationalpsychology is one of the branchof psychology concerned with the scientific study ofhuman learning.
The study of learning processes such ascognitive development, individual differences in intelligence, motivation,self-concept, self-regulation and their role in learning. The element ofeducational psychology are the learner, the teacher, the learning experiences,the teaching experiences and the learning environment. Actually educationalpsychology studies the behavior and the experiences of the learner in responseto the learning environment. However, the discipline employs scientific methodsand follows a scientific approach in its study of the learner’s behaviorthrough the responses in the learning environment. Moreover, it tries to studythe subject by controlling external factors and achieves a fair deal of successin predicting behavior in general sense.
Owing to these qualities, educationalpsychology is the scientific study.Educational psychology isa scientific study that addresses two basic questions; (1) why do someindividual learn more than others? (2) what can be done to improve thatlearning? Secondly, what is the scopeof educational psychology??The scope of educationalpsychology is limited to its five elements of interest and their mutualinterrelationships. The teacher is the pivot of the subject and the act oflearning should be based on the psychological factors such as inner abilities,individual differences and development of the learner. We can estimate thescope of educational psychology by following factors;· Human behavior· Growth and development· The learner· The learning experiences· Learning process· Learning situation or environmentIt studies human behaviorin context of education and also the principles of growth and development. Thesubject matter of educational psychology is knitted around the learner.Educational psychology helps in deciding what learning experiences are to beprovided. After knowing that what experiences are to be provided then it moveslearner on the laws, principles and theories of learning.
Environment factorsand learning situation is the midway between learner and teacher.Thirdly, what is the purposeof educational psychology??The main purpose of theeducational psychology is the “establishment and maintenance of effective humanperformance”. Thepurpose of the educational psychology is to promote the development of thepersonality, talents, mental and physical abilities of children throughcollaborative work with individuals, families, schools, educational managers,and other agencies.
Some educational purposes are following;· The rights and opinions of children and youngpeople within the framework of the UN convention on the Rights of the Child.· Solution oriented and positive problem solvingapproaches at all levels of our work.· Integrity, honesty and impartiality.
· Respect for all individuals, including theirright to confidentiality.· Equality of access to services on the basis ofneed, irrespective of gender, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, age, socialstatus or wealth.· Consultation and openness.· High professional standards and the continuingdevelopment of skills.· Practice and provision based upon soundevidence.· Least intrusive but effective intervention.· Collaborative and supportive work with parents,schools and other agencies.
· Creativity, innovation and intellectual rigors. Fourthly, Needsof educational psychology??· To know the learner.· To know once own self as a teacher.· To suggest effective techniques of teaching andlearning experiences.· To create a suitable teaching environment.· To provide guidance.· To maintain discipline.
· To make evaluation and assessment.· To solve classroom problems.Finally, the contentof educational psychology. v What is teaching??How do keeping school andteaching differ.
.?? Are teachers born or made..?? what is the role ofpsychology in the teaching..?? what is the role of a teacher in the life oflearner..
??Teaching may be poor or good, but nevertheless and performs in the series of operations whose purpose isto transmit this subject matter to student. A Teacher is that person who do somethingto someone. Much of what passes for teaching actually is not. It is true thatmost students passed most of there examinations. They do manage to move fromgrade level to grade level and eventually receive diplomas.
In most schoolssubjects most students learn to repeat a considerable amount of informationfactual or otherwise. But the question remains what have they learned whichremain a permanent part of them and be used in there life. Perhaps there is arather fundamental difference between teaching and merely keeping school. Thereare many teacher which are more effective in our life than others. Someteachers made us to think and solve our problem on our own efforts. Some saidTeaching is a learned activity and onthe other hand teachers believe that they have a gift drives them. Here we fallin the debate of nature vs.
nurture. If we talk about a good teacher then thatteacher which are calling good teacher by us will must have some skills such astecher must b organizational, social, innovative, open for question and knowabout the modern technology, teachermust be the example of tolerance, come to class with the full preparation, andmust be a story teller. The role of psychology in the teaching is veryimportant.· To know learner.· Early identification and intervention.· Guidance and counseling to the student as wellas parents.· When to teach, how to teach and what to teachthe child.· Good observation of the children.
· Develop social skills.· The effect of body language on the children.· Learning environment.· Improve communication skills.· Vocabulary and word comprehension.
The role of teacher have a great influence in the life of the learner. Teacher is a model for the learner. A learner try to follow his teacherin the every field of his life. Jesus , Buddha and Muhammad were such examples.One of the other point is that the teacher must respect the learner and must bea friend and guide to him. A teacher is not a dictator or a commander but afriend, guide and a working partner.
He also helps his student to aviodmistake. He has to know about the psychology of child.v What should be the method of teaching.
.??Teaching method is a set of didactic procedure that lead the learning.In simple words “Teaching method” is that method which use to teach somethingto someone.
Some important method ofteaching are following.· Lecture method.· Project method.· Dialectical or Socratic method.· Discussion method.· Unit method.
Lecture method is thatmethod in which teacher is able to develop a point clearly, logically andsystematically. So that the pupil come to understand the interrelation of theparts of the topic being presented.Project method waspopularized bt William H. Kilpatrick in the 1920’s, in which pupils singly andjointly initiate a learning task , do it by themselves and with the help ofteacher. A project is an individualized work assignment. Although all membersof the class may be given the same general kind of task, each student is freeto arrange variations. In this method students works on an individualizedschedule.
Projects involve physical activity and almost always result in somekind of physical product.Unit method, in its selfgeneral sense, is a collection of subject matter which is unified by a singletheme. Unit method may be selected or designed to fit a particular situation.Educators have devised a great variety of unit plans, the nature of whichdepends largely on how the educator defines the learning process and what hesees as the goal of education. Dialectical or Socratic method is the methodof question answer in which the mind of child is exercised. Teacher questionthe student when student answer the question then teacher repose with anotherquestion which prompted him to think more deeply for answer the question.Discussion method is amethod other than the dialectic or Socratic method.
It is the method ofexchanging the ideas among a teacher and students or among the students for thepurpose of furthering students thinking, learning, or problem solving. Teaching method should be according to thecapability of children. Today’s students have a quick changing future to demandindividual skills, compatibility, right questions, and the ability to manageprograms and people.
Teacher have a unique role, and in many ways theirstudents become collaborators and trainers rather than trainers, helping theirstudents pursue their challenging plans.v What is child psychology..
??Psychology is the sciencethat deals with how others feel, think and do. While child psychology is thespecial branch for child that deals with mental power or interactions betweenthe conscious and sub conscious elements in a child. Importance of childpsychology is following.· A child behavior is shaped by his or herenvironment. As a parents or caregiver, it is important to understand thereason behind a child’s behavior .· To understand the child better.· To know the problem of psychological origin.
· To deliver mental services in meaning andeffective manner.· To establish effective communication with childand the parents.· To gain confidence of the child and of theparents.· To teach the child and the parent.· To have better treatment planning andinteraction with other discipline.· To produce comfortable environment for thedental tem to work on the patient. v Need of child psychology in education.
.??Child is immature one. His mind like his body is immature and has to bedeveloped. Teacher must be known about the child psychology for the bettermentand development of the child. As child psychology studies the various aspectsof a human’s development throughout childhood. Child psychology is the specificbranch of development psychology dealing not only with physical development butalso with their mental, emotional. And social development, also influences thataffect a child’s growth involve much more than the internal forces that arisefrom within an individual. Environmental factors, such as social relationshipsand culture in which a child lives, also play an important role.
Acomprehensive analysis of a child’s development takes into account many differentmajor context:The social background.The cultural background.The socioeconomic background.Actually child psychology seeks to answer the following questions.· What makes one child a leader in her groupwhile the other is timid and stays close to the teacher all the time.
.?· What, no average, should be expected from achild at different ages..??· Is there a pattern in development by which onecan expect a three year old to behave differently from five year old..??· What will be your reaction when a punctualstudent comes late in the class..
??These some questionregarding the child psychology, we will able to answer these questions afterthe study of child psychology. Motivation is the huge key in the education, ifthe teacher motivate the student there will more chances of the success.When a student motivated he learnbetter. Motivation is one thing that brings student to carry out and achieveswhat we propose and play a great role in learning.v Theories of learning.
.??· Classical conditioning: Pavlov demonstrated this phenomenon bypresenting a dog with meat while ringing the bell. He repeated this again andagain very soon dog gad classical conditioning and started salivation on thering of the bell. Even if the meat was not presented. · Operant conditioning: B .
F. Skinner gave operant conditioning, thisis the type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences keyconcept in operant conditioning are positive reinforcement , negativereinforcement , positive punishment and negative punishment. · Social learning theory: According to Albert Bandura, a major part ofhuman learning consist of observational learning, which is learning by watchinganother model or person. It is also called Vicarious learning. There are 4element of vicarious learning.
1: Attention 2:Memory 3: Imitation 4: Motivation· Hierarchy of needs: According to the hierarchy of needs educationby Maslow. There are 5 stages.· Law of Effect: Edward Thorndike learning in animals using apuzzle box for this purpose. According to his Law of effect, any behavior thatis followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated and any behaviorthat is followed by negative consequences’ is likely to be stopped.· Cognitive theory: jean piaget gave the cognitive developmenttheory. In which he define the 4 stages of development Sensorimotor,preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational. Details are infollowing table. v Conculsion: As educational psychology is the scientificstudy of human learning, the knowledge and proper application of the subject ofeducational psychology is vital in the professional growth of the a teacher andthat is why is a major subject in a teacher training course.