In a relatedarea of research on teachers, studies have shown that those who are unusuallyeffective in having their students learn well share a number of common beliefsand perspectives. Such teachers, for example, typically have a strong sense ofteacher efficacy. That is, they firmly believe they can help nearly allstudents learn, even those who may be difficult or unmotivated (Berman &McLaughlin, 1977). These highly effective teachers also tend to be verypositive in their feelings about teaching and are generally confidentabout their teaching abilities (Brandt, 1986).Another significant factor in teaching is a professioncharacterized by high levels of burnout and emotional exhaustion (Hakanen etal.
, 2006; Maslach et al., 2001). Due to theisolated culture, teachers may become frustrated, bored, and depleted as theyprivately struggle with their anxieties (Fullan, 2001; Dussault &Deaudelin, 1999). Further, teachers often feel drained intellectually andemotionally when they deal with student misbehaviors (Chang & Davis, 2009).To successfully connect with their students and help students connect with thesubject matter, teachers need a variety of intellectual and emotional resourceson which they can draw (Woolfolk Hoy & Davis, 2005).The current decades seems to be known as the years of stress andintension. Studies revealed these two features as the most challenging andinfluential factors in human’s life, for all contexts and work places.
It isassumed that if people do not feel stressed for a few days or weeks; theysuffer from a chronic stress condition that causes a feel of frustration andfatigue. They come across not only with emotional but also with physicalproblems. This condition has been called burnout by psychologists. Around onequarter of novice educators of the United States do not tend to carry on theiroccupation after three years and by the fifth year this increases to 40%(Milner Hoy, 2003). Self-efficacy is recognized as an another significant factor in anyprofession and life achievement, and defined as people beliefs about their ownabilities to think, plan, monitor, organize, and perform activities needed ineducational settings (Bandura, 1997, 2006).The emotional needs, labor, and work required for a teacher arenoteworthy compared to other professions.
Whereas burnout symptoms amongteachers have been studied for decades, few scholars have examined teacherburnout through the lens of emotion regulation and the antecedent assessments.In the present study, the researcher argues that the usual patterns inteachers’ judgments about student behavior and other teaching tasks maycontribute significantly to teachers’ repeated experience of distinctunpleasant emotions and may eventually lead to certain degrees of burnout. Inaddition, teachers who experience higher levels of burnout tend to withdrawfrom student–teacher relationships and tend to feel inefficacious about theirteaching tasks (Burke et al.
, 1996). As a result, they may face more problemsin classroom management with regard to students’ behaviors. The researcherargues that by helping teachers become aware of and interpret and question thejudgments that underlie their emotions, we may help teachers better understandhow their judgments triggered their unpleasant emotions and help them learn howto regulate those emotions effectively.Today, In Iran, the majorities of teachers encounter with differentsocial problems including inflation that causes or forces them to undergo socialstressed and tension. Blasé (1982) has shown that stress and burnout influenceteachers’ job gratification, and efficiency reduction when working withstudents. Furthermore, it is seemed that teachers with a high self-efficacy aregladder, more innovative, and more effectual in their duties as teachers.
Realizing of teachers’ view of self-efficacy and the effects ofthis knowledge depend on teachers’ decision-making and their action andmethodologies that they use in the class (Pajares, 1992). Because languagelearning typically occurs in formal language setting and as a foreign language,understanding these issues is very vital in Iranian context (Kariminia , 2007).Consequently teachers play a critical role in all societies and thesuccess of learners’ future relies on teachers’ affective conditions, thesignificance of this study is to help teachers improve their self-efficacy anddecrease their burnout, by determining the relationship between burnout andself-efficacy. Accordingly, the learners can make more benefit from theirteachers and the whole class.The years of experience were a factor which the research aimed tofind their relationship with EFL teachers’ burnout trait. The present researchclaimed that there was a relationship between EFL teachers’ burnout and theiryears of teaching experience. Findings of the study revealed that there is adirect and positive relationship between them.
In other words, EFL teachers’ burnout tended toincrease with additional years of teaching experience. It means by increasing EFL teachers experience they have more fellof burnout.In conclusion, the researcher came to this point that in process ofteaching and learning English which is considered as a foreign language self-efficay behavior had a vital role in effective teaching the more the EFLteachers equipped themselves with self-efficacy and burnout factors, the morethey performed effectively in the class the more the quality of learningincreased.
5.2 Implications All EFL teachers should be aware of self-efficacy and the way itcan influence teachers’ performance in the class. By considering the complexityof the individual and the social aspects of teaching roles, highlyself-efficacious teachers seem to successfully achieve teaching effectiveness.If teachers know that how their own self-efficacy leads them to performsuccessfully; they can become role models of self-efficacy.
The implications of this study can be practical and useful for EFLteachers who eagerly try to improve their teaching qualifications especiallythe ones concern themselves with effective teaching. The study tried toconsider the qualification traits which are interrelated and lead to a positiveand effective teacher presentation in the class and make both teachers andstudents satisfied in teaching and learning process. The main focus of thestudy was on the factors more than content and linguistic knowledge which havebeen always seen as a crucial factor for an EFL teacher. Although the present research specified to investigate EFLteachers’ qualifications, the findings and outcome can be generalized toteachers in other fields as well. As the teacher has a crucial role in learningprocess and base on the Iranian educational system school classes are almostteacher-centered it turns teaching into a demanding job, therefore; there is aneed for EFL teachers to well-equipped themselves with teaching qualifications.
Moreover, Teacher preparationprograms play a crucial role in the retention of qualified teachers. The resultof the present study can be deployed in EFL pre- service and in-service EFLteacher training programs conducting by official educational system in Iran. Itis recommended that universities schools of education re-evaluate their teacherpreparation programs to train self-efficacious and more teachers with feel ofburnout.5.3 Suggestions for Further Research From the evidence of the study and considering the limitations ofcurrent research some suggestions are introduced for further study. Firstly, theresearcher collected data on few characteristics of a qualified EFL teacher;therefore, it is highly recommended to investigate other traits which may haveprobable correlation with teachers’ self-efficacy and burnout.Secondly, it would be instructive to conduct a broader study byadministering more teachers in Iran. Moreover, a cross-cultural study onIranian and non-Iranian teachers with the same and further teachers’ traits arehighly recommended.
Thirdly, EFL teachers’ educational major was not considered as avariable. The only requirement for the teachers as participants in this studywas teaching English. Their educational status and university degrees didn’tconcern this study. It is stronglysuggested other individual characteristics and external factors like major andage that may affect the teachers’ performance to be included in futureresearch.