In passed by the Congolese upper house. The

In 2015, major protests broke out across the country
and protesters demanded that Joseph Kabila step down as President. The protests began after the
passage of a law by the Congolese lower house and passed by the Congolese upper
house. The law created a political disagreement for years between the Kabila
government and opposition leaders if whether Joseph Kabila could extend his
presidency term to next national census was conducted. Political Violence and
government repression intensified in 2016 as 1President
Joseph Kabila clung to power beyond his constitutionally mandated two-term limit,
which ended on Dec 19 2016 despite widespread opposition and international condemnation.
As authorities deliberately stated plans to organize elections. Government
officials and security forces systematically sought to silence, repress and
intimidate the growing coalition of voices calling for credible timely

These political violence and
government repression resulted to 2human
rights violations by security forces of President Kabila to the Citizens, civil
societies and opposition leaders condemn the human rights act caused by
security agencies.

State Security agencies restricted citizen’s
freedom of expression with the government shutting down and cutting radio and
mainstream media platform frequency to restrict its operations and also
blocking telecommunication agencies 
providing internet services 
to  stop sharing images in social
media that showed violence and brutality from DR Congo government security
forces to its citizens. Freedom of association and peaceful assembly this was
majorly done by to political opposition leaders organizing protest were termed
illegal. Top DR Congo government personnel, arbitrarily arrests, tortured
opposition leaders, looting of people properties, force recruitment of children
to rebel army, violence against women and girls by the Congo soldiers in

These violations of human rights were
condemn by the International community ie the United Nations through its UN
peacekeeping missions forces in partnership with other neighboring eg Rwanda,
Uganda fearing a refugee crisis. Both Armed Forces and the UN Peacekeeping
Forces United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission In DRC were unable to
protect civilians.

Issues of Implementation

3Convention against Torture and
other cruel inhuman or degrading Treatment

Democratic Republic of Congo are part
of the Convention against torture, they are signatories to this treaty, which protect
individuals of a state party against torture or any cruel inhuman. This treaty
duly ratified in March 2002 with no adoption of legal provisions.

The implementation of this treaty
in Democratic Republic of Congo in still on going and facing challenges due to political, economic and social transition initiated
by an armed conflict that has had and continues to have an impact on the this

Convention on the Elimination of
all forms of Discrimination against Women

The Convention ensures that no elimination of all acts of discrimination against women either by
an individual or a State. DRC have ratified this treaty with no reservations
and adopted its terms, Congolese have the Obligations to respect terms and
obligations of this treaty.

The implementation of this a treaty in DRC is in the hands of the
legislatures who are yet to finalize the procedures of this treaty in line with
the Constitution of the country. The executive have no power to access the
treaty without amendments from the Parliament.

Convention on the rights of the
child 1990

This treaty sets out the civil, political, economic,
social and cultural rights of every child,
regardless of their race, religion or abilities. The Democratic Republic
of Congo bears the primary responsibility in ensuring that rights of the
children are respected in all angles of the country. DRC have not implemented
this international treaty on rights of the child due to the growing and
persisting of armed conflicts in different provinces in Congo.


Outcomes or relevance of the
International Treaty at play

4Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women

The Democratic Republic of Congo
being a signatory to this treaty, during its Political instability in 2016 promotions
of women’s rights and 5gender equality  neglected by the State. Innocent women and girls raped, sexually violated and sex slavery
used as a weapon of war by the Armed Forces and armed groups of the Democratic
Republic of the Congo.

Covenant on Civil and political Rights

This treaty serves
to protect individuals from the access of the State, Democratic Republic Of
Congo have restricted its citizens an opportunity to contribute the
determination of laws and government participation. Congolese have been denied
the freedom of Association and Peaceful Assembly, President Kabila declared
protest by opposition leader’s illegal, even though the DRC laws and
International Laws requires organizers to notify local authorities. Assemblies
organized by President Kabila largely had no any interference by authorities.

Struggle Movements
for Change in DRC, were convicted and arbitrarily arrested for weeks due to
their peaceful protest participations and support of Opposition motions. These Movements
were declared illegal unregistered movements by Kabila’s local authorities even
though neither the National nor international Law gives conditions for
establishment of an Association.

Convention against
Torture and other cruel inhuman or degrading Treatment

It protects
individuals against torture and cruel treatments. The Democratic Republic of
Congo have gone against the terms of this treaty in torturing civilians and
oppositions leaders who are against Kabila’s government, Armed forces have been
using the Incommunicado method to torture civilians for weeks or even months.

Convention on
rights of the Child

The Democratic
republic of Congo under President Joseph Kabila bears the Responsibility in
ensuring that the all rights of the children within the state, are respected
and implemented in good faith.

1 Democratic republic of the congo,





5 Explaining
Sexual Violence and Gender Inequalities in the DRC, Freedman, J., 2011.
Explaining sexual violence and gender inequalities in the DRC. Peace Review: A
Journal of Social Justice, 23(2)


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