Telsur or Irupu (Hopea Species): A hard, strong durable timber is yielded by this tree. It is two time harder than teak. This tree can resist outdoor exposure and bad climate without any preservative. This is utilised for boat-building, bridge construction, masts, and cart building, pilling and railway sleepers.
The making of railway sleepers has been stopped now and instead cement concrete sleepers are used by railways. West Bengal, Maharashtra, Andamans, Coorg and the West Coast of India are important producers of this wood. Chaplash (Artocarpus Species): It occurs in north-east India. It produces a strong and durable timber like teak.
It is used for furniture making ship-building, packing boxes. Aini a timber of same species and quality is found in Western Ghat and is immensely used for different purposes. Gujran (Dipterocarpus Species): It is found in the forests of Andamans, Assam and West Bengal and its little different variety is available in Malabar areas. In Assam Gujran is known as hollong and produce a very strong timber but not of a durable nature. It is often treated with a preservative for outdoor use. This is used for manufacturing railway sleepers, furniture and for house building purposes. The chief supply of this timber comes from Assam. Average production of hollong in Assam is about 12000 tons a year.
Bishop Wood (Bischofia): It generally occurs in Assam and in small quantity in Duar region of West Bengal. The main uses of wood are in construction of houses and of bridges. Nahar Mesua Ferrea: The West coast of India and forests of Assam are the area where it is mainly found. It yields a fairly strong and durable timber. This can be easily seasoned. Railway sleepers, keels and masts of boats, pit-props and piles are manufactured from this wood. Poon (Calophyllam): This first class structural timber is found in Western Ghats and Coorg. It is very hard and can be easily seasoned.
It is used in furniture making and house building.
The Deciduous Forest in India:
Sal (Shorea robustia): This tree yields a very hard, heavy and tough wood. It is a very strong cross-fibred reddish brown wood which is extrembly durable and remains immune to attack of white ants etc. for long duration. Beams, rafters, railway carriages, tool handles etc. are manufactured from this wood in whole India. It occurs in large pure stands in deciduous forests and in patches in evergreen forest of India.
Teak (Tectona Grandis): This is a strong wood of average hardness and of medium weight. This wood is durable and maintains shape. This wood takes good polish and is easy to be worked. The rotary lathe can easily sliced it. This is used for making ship, furniture and railway carriages. The deciduous forest of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa etc. contain these trees. European countries demand this wood due to its inherent qualities.
Khair (Acacia Catechu): It is available all over the deciduous forests and is used for the manufacture of khair used for chewing betel leaves (pan). The rice pestles (Dhenki) is manufactured from it besides sugarcane crushers, ploughs, keels of boats etc. Simul (Bombax Malabaricum): It yields cotton which is demanded for stuffing pillows.
It is very soft and is used for making match boxes, packing cases etc. Palash (Butea Frondosa): Lac insects are reared on this tree. This occurs in big patches in the Chotanagpur plateau. It is also available in scattered forms all over the plains of North India. It is not important as source of timber. Ebony or Ablus (Diosphyros Inelanoxylon): Except the North-Eastern part of India it is available in all deciduous forest. It is of dark green of greenish black colour and has strength, toughness, durability and shock resisting ability due to which it is difficult to saw and work.
Arjun (Terminatia Arjuna): It is available throughout the deciduous forests. It is easy to work and takes a good lasting polish. Agricultural implements, carts and boats are made from it. Hurra or Har (Terminalia Chebula): This tree yields myrobalan which is used for tanning and medical purposes. Kusum (Schleichra Trijuga): This tree is available all over the deciduous regions. It yields a hard, heavy and tough wood. It is used for making hubs of wheels, mortars, bearings and tool handles. Lendi or Sidha (Lager Streemia Parviflora): This tree is found all over India particularly in Bihar and West Bengal.
A strong wood is yielded by this tree which is used in the form of posts, beams and rafters. Mahua (Bassia Latifolia): It is a very important tree of deciduous forest of north India (Chotanagpur Plateau). Its flowers are used as food as fruits are eaten. The kernel of the fruits yields oil which is utilised for culinary purposes. A coarse spirit distilled from the Mahua is consumed by the local people as liquor.
Some Important Timber-Producing Trees of the Himalayan Forests:
Chir and Blue Pines (Pines Species): Kashmir, Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya are the region where they are extensively found and they provide light woods which are easy to saw and work.
When some preservative is applied they become durable. Cypress (Cupressus Torulosa): It is the best of all conifer woods available in India. Garhwal and Kumaon hills make available this wood. This has greater durability and is comparatively free from knots.
Deodar: It is moderately hard wood, strongly scented and oily and is used for railway sleepers and for building. Indian deodar serves first class pencils wood which is even superior to east African deodar. Spruce (Picea Morinda): It yields a light wood which is used for planking, cheap furniture boxes etc.