Impact works done through individuals, but his super

Impact of team work on employee performance
A study at ATVI (Afghanistan Technical Vocational Institute) Kabul
Chapter One
Introduction:
This chapter presents the background information, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research question and significance of the study.

1.2 Background of the study
Team can be described as a group of people who work together to achieve the same goals and objectives for the good of the service users and organizations in order to deliver a good quality of service.

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Teamwork is the process of working collaboratively with a group of people in order to achieve a goal. The external factors of teamwork are the political, economic, social and technological factors that affect teamwork whiles the internal factors of teamwork constitute leadership style, diversity (culture, talent and personalities) communication, cohesiveness etc. which affects teamwork.
Teamwork is as old as mankind, and many organizations use the term teamwork in either one sense or the other, such as in the production, marketing processes, etc. Management team, production team or an entire organization can be referred as a team. Cook (1998) claimed that there is a growing consensus among scholars in the world that organizations may be getting works done through individuals, but his super achievement lies in the attainment of set goals through teams (teamwork). It is a well-known fact that teamwork is not only the foundation of all successful managements, but the means of improving overall results in organizational productivity. Wage (1997) described Teamwork as an idea of working together in a group to achieve the same goals and objectives for the good of the service users and organizations in order to deliver a good quality of service (productivity).

McShone (1998) said that teams are replacing individuals as the basic building blocks of organization – French language television programs has shifted to team-based projects and giving more recognition to teams than to individuals. Companies are not just looking for technical ability but looking for people who can work on teams and solve problems.
According to Steiner (1972) teams and teamwork are not novel concepts; teams and team thinking have been around for years at companies such as Procter and Gamble; and Botany. In the 1980s the manufacturing and auto industries embraced a new team-oriented approach when United States firms retooled to combat Japanese competitor who were quickly gaining market share. Brown et al (1996) examined that managers discovered the large body of research indicating that teams can be more than the tradition corporate structure for making decisions quickly and efficiently. He further said that teams needed for the restructuring and reengineering processes of the future giving instances that simple changes like encouraging input and feedbacks from workers on the line make dramatic improvements.

Hence companies have to encourage teamwork in order to gain competitive advantage because its base where new ideas come from. To employees teamwork is seen as constituting a larger group of people than what job position describes. The essence of teamwork is that workload is reduced and broken into pieces of work for everyone to take part.

1.3 Research Problem Statement
Teamwork can accomplish what the individual cannot do on his or her own. Every organization, either large or small, struggles to acquire productivity so as to achieve success and maintain a valuable image in this present world of organizational competitions. Besides, it is the wish of organizations to see the input they use (resources) and the output (goods and services produced) they have at the end.
Lack of teamwork in the organization that is the failure of an organization to coordinate works into work groups in order to tap from the respective human resources the organization possesses. In today’s society, there have been so much emphasis on pride and personal achievement at work place; where by the concept of teamwork seems to be overlooked by managers and employees, due to this management sees less essence of teamwork as a major tool of performance which has lead them to poor performance and productivity in the industry market. Therefore the study seeks to identify the impact teamwork has on employee performance.

The management system of Afghanistan Technical Vocational Institute lacks team work in the major group tasks those tasks could be done more effective through team work like; preparation and holding aptitude test of students with ministry of higher education and Kabul University and many other tasks that could be done in shape of team. The practice of team work at ATVI is very less, this research reveals the fruitfulness and efficiency of team work, further the research may encourage employees and professors of ATVI to work as team for better result and performance.

1.4 Research Questions
For the purpose of this research, the following research questions was formulated to guide the research:
What ways does teamwork effect on employee’s performance?
1.5 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the impact of teamwork on employee performance. The specific objectives of this study are as listed below:
To find out the effect of teamwork on employee performance.

To identify the positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is very much important to maintain the healthy advantages of productivity as a result of its importance to organizations. And teamwork is the best tool which can be used in helping us to achieve it (organizational productivity). Looking at the important role that teamwork can play, to enable organizations achieve this, this study will be very significant to organizations, employers and employees, students, managers and future researchers.

1.7 Scheme of the Study
Chapter one; which is the introduction covers the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, and organization of the study. Chapter two covers the literature review on the impact of teamwork on organizational productivity. Chapter three introduces the methodology employed in the conduction of the research. Chapter four looks at the general information, data analysis and discussion of the data. Chapter five captures the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study or research.

Chapter 2
Literature Review2.1 Team in Organization ConceptA group is a gathering of individuals working towards a shared objective. Group Building includes the way toward empowering the gathering of individuals to achieve their objectives. It comprises of steps like elucidation of group objectives; distinguishing proof of preventions to objective accomplishments; confronting the recognized difficulties and empowering the accomplishment of the objectives. Fajana (2002) affirms that collaboration is a reconciliation of assets and information sources working in concordance to accomplish hierarchical objectives, where parts are endorsed for each association part, challenges are similarly confronted and incremental changes are looked for consistently. Katzenbach and Smith (1993) noticed that a group can basically be characterized as few individuals, with an arrangement of execution objectives, who have a promise to a typical reason and an approach for which they consider themselves commonly responsible. The proposal here is that groups must be of a reasonable size and that all colleagues must be resolved to achieve group objectives. Likewise, the colleagues must be mutually responsible for their activities and the results of these activities. There are two fundamental abilities in the group building process. The main includes perceiving the correct issues, and the second needs to do with handling them in a proper way and request. Group building has different structures relying upon the size and nature of the group. For example in circumstances where group organization is ceaselessly changing, the accentuation is on building up the aptitudes in people to be powerful colleagues and it tries to change the aptitudes and capacities of the person at working inside a group or inside different groups. In any case, where group enrollment is moderately static like in administration groups the accentuation is on endeavors went for enhancing connections between colleagues. The biggest scale is that of hierarchical group building. Except for the senior administration group, the capacity of people to have an effect on the corporate culture is extremely constrained. One of the key points of the group building is to change the practices and states of mind pervasive in the association, which are relatively free of who really works there. Group building doesn’t simply mean getting the group together. It is more than non specific exercises forced upon groups with no genuine thought for what the group needs or needs. There is requirement for a more thought about approach or more all, something where the destinations are unmistakably expressed and can be met. It is important to consider particular issues that should be tended to and the sorts or identities engaged with the group. Dianna (2006) asserts that cooperation is a type of aggregate work that may include singular undertakings, yet generally includes some sort of aggregate errand where every part is contributing piece of an all things considered composed record that should mirror the aggregate astuteness of the gathering. Instead of gathering work, which depends on trade, cooperation depends on dialog. Dialog happens when every part shares their view, and is heard by whatever remains of the gathering. Dialog requires decency so every part’s thoughts are broadcast and partook balancedly. It can require more investment than trade, yet with training, a period guardian, and a couple of standards, gatherings can make reasonable dialogs that are likewise time effective. Since the undertakings are normally aggregate, the common results of collaboration exchanges are transaction and trade off. While no individuals may get all their own particular manner, the result dependably mirrors the best reasoning and needs of each gathering part. Cooperation can be very proficient since it brings about everybody feeling that his or her perspective is enough spoken to and represented. The discourse distinguishes every individual’s most elevated needs and the arrangement and trade off blends these into a result that mirrors the gathering’s aggregate needs for progress.

2.2 The formation of Team in OrganizationThe term ‘group building’ is regularly used to portray different exercises and a significant part of the writing looked into gives changing definitions and phrasing. Salas et al. (1999) directed an integrative investigation of group assembling and noticed that one of the difficulties in checking on the writing was the sheer decent variety of group building intercessions. As per Salas et al. (1999) the uncertain idea of the term ‘group building’ has prompted the term being characterized comprehensively in surviving writing incorporating mediations that are “thoughtfully very disparate” (p. 324).
The writing investigated for this exploration uncovered a huge number of group building mediations extending from physically difficult undertakings, for example, abseiling, shake climbing and other comparative open air interests to ‘diversions’ that require barely any props, are not physically requesting, and can be embraced inside or outside and in any area.
Numerous scholastics have made a qualification between the demonstration and motivation behind group building. McShane and Travaglione (2003) characterize the demonstration of group working as far as enhancing work groups. Woodman and Sherwood (1980) talk about group working as arranged intercessions that emphasis on creating group critical thinking and viability and are encouraged by an outsider specialist while as per Toofany (2007) the reason for group building is to upgrade hierarchical adequacy. This is generally refined by attempted assignments that add to or upgrade the general viability of a group. Svyantek, Goodman, Benz and Gard (1999) limited the reason by means of their meta-investigation of related group building examination to upgrading the relational and critical thinking abilities of colleagues.
Mazany, Francis and Sumich (1995) characterize group working as an interest in the “general population asset of an association” (p. 51). Mazany et al. exclude the term intercession rather settling on a more summed up definition which is huge as the term ‘mediation’ may suggest that there is an issue requiring therapeutic activity. This is an imperative qualification as both of the associations who took part in this examination (alluded in the future as ‘DiggerCo’ and ‘FizzCo’) did not see the group working as an intercession, yet rather an affirmation of the significance of giving on-going preparing and advancement activities. As Robbins et al. (2008) watch, these exercises eventually add to the general improvement of authoritative adequacy and representative prosperity.
For clearness and to likewise mirror the goals of the two associations who took an interest in this examination, the term ‘exercises’ as opposed to ‘intercessions’ is utilized for the adjust of this proposal, unless the specialist is citing an immediate reference.

2.3 Reasons of Team Building in Organization
Lager (1976), Dyer (1977), Buller (1986), Sundstom, De Meuse and Futrell (1990), Robbins et al. (2008) talk about group working as including four key components: objective setting, relational relations, critical thinking, and part elucidation. In embraced foundation investigate for this proposition, and talking about the points with different group building facilitators, it turned out to be evident that objective setting, critical thinking and relational relations were constantly the most well-known drivers for organizations choosing group working as an authoritative advancement device. On account of this the determination criteria for this examination stipulates that any piece of, or the majority of the three most regular goals, must shape some portion of the general plan brief.
The oversight or consideration of any of the four targets is in accordance with the Robbins et al. (2008) perception that group building exercises may join any or these destinations in fluctuating degrees, and that the determination of the goals is exclusively reliant on the requirements of the association at the time.
Group building has a few noteworthy destinations one of which is improving great interchanges with members as colleagues and people. There is additionally expanded efficiency and imagination. Another target of group building is to accomplish better working strategies and methodology consequently inspiring colleagues to accomplish objectives. It is likewise gone for guaranteeing clear work targets and an atmosphere of participation and shared critical thinking. Moreover group building improves more elevated amounts of trust and support. With group building, differing associates function admirably together and there are more elevated amounts of employment fulfillment and responsibility.

2.4 Effective Teams and Effective Team Building
Katzenbach and Smith (1993) records the accompanying necessities for building viable groups:
(i)It ought to be sufficiently little in the quantity of individuals.
(ii)Adequate levels of integral aptitudes.
(iii)Truly significant reason.
(iv)Specific objective or objectives.

(v)Established clear way to deal with the collaboration.
(vi)A feeling of common responsibility.
(vii)Defined fitting authority structure.
Powerful group working requires discovering time, choosing colleagues, engaging colleagues, giving preparing in significant aptitudes and learning, creating shared objectives, and encouraging group working – especially in the beginning times of the collaboration. Successful groups are painstakingly composed. When collecting a group it is essential to think about the general flow of the group. La Fasto (2001) distinguishes five flow that are crucial to group achievement. The primary dynamic is group participation. Fruitful groups are comprised of an accumulation of powerful people who are experienced, have critical thinking capacity, are available to tending to the issue and are activity arranged. Second is group relationship which needs to do with the capacity of colleagues to give and get criticism. The third powerful is group critical thinking which suggests that group adequacy relies upon the level of center and clearness of the objectives of the group. Fourth is group authority. Powerful group authority relies upon initiative capabilities. A skillful pioneer is.

2.5 The Prospects of Teamwork
The possibilities of collaboration may fluctuate for crosswise over associations since they are reliant on a few components, similar to the way of life and atmosphere, adequacy of group administration, and the association. Awesome groups get things going more than whatever else in associations. Enabled groups get the best outcomes. Enabling individuals has more to do with state of mind and conduct towards staff than procedures and apparatuses. Pile (1996), Roufaiel and Meissner (1995), Sundstrom, De Meuse &Futrell (1990) recommend that as a response to expanded rivalry groups are being actualized in consistently expanding numbers. Added to worldwide rivalry, there is additionally a developing need to cook for specialty advertises and to contend on cost, and advancement. The resultant impact is that organizations can never again depend on large scale manufacturing and economies of scale to contend in the commercial center. Groups give representatives expanded self-governance, expanded support, and proprietorship with respect to choices, they can in this way augment authoritative development. As opposed to being instructed representatives are given objectives, or they create objectives with their group pioneers, and are without then to settle on the best technique for accomplishing the objectives. Groups likewise give different attractions to the associations where they work. To begin with, groups advance the utilization of HR by enabling associations to access singular learning and abilities. A ramifications of expanded multifaceted nature is that directors can never again know everything about all parts of association activities and it is basic that the information and aptitudes of the workforce be used. Second, as Wageman (1997) affirms groups upgrade hierarchical learning since representatives can try and make procedures that are most appropriate to their work. Katzenbach and Smith (1993) takes note of that groups can make a collaboration by achieve picks up in singular profitability and proficiency. Kirkman and Shapiro (1997) confirms that groups achieve expanded levels of occupation fulfillment, inspiration and representative duty since they are related with a more prominent assortment of assignments and included obligation regarding colleagues. The resultant impacts of this incorporate lessened staff turnover and non-attendance and thus decrease in hierarchical expenses and enhanced association memory or information base.

2.6 Weaknesses and Challenges to Teamwork:
The usage of groups is, on a very basic level, a hierarchical change and improvement process. Groups are, in this way, powerless to every one of the difficulties that can happen amid any hierarchical change process. Specifically, representative protection may come about where workers are required to work with different workers with whom they are new. For this situation, the new groups are separating set up social connections. One manner by which this can be overcome is through teambuilding. Field and Swift (1996) takes note of that groups regularly confront issues that can diminish the adequacy of the group and particularly its capacity to decide. The group may not share clear objectives or purposes, and along these lines as prior examined characterizing particular objectives is essential. The time exchange offs in basic leadership (group basic leadership can remove time from working. There might be issues of “mindless obedience” and strain to adjust and in addition the potential for expanded clash over basic leadership. Without satisfactory group preparing and planning, it is far-fetched that groups will work adequately to create and understand a common vision. There are likewise the difficulties emerging from absence of correspondence; individual clash; overemphasis on give and take relationship. Teambuilding endeavors to ‘enhance aggregate execution by enhancing correspondence, diminishing clash, and creating more noteworthy attachment and duty among work amass individuals. Worker protection may likewise come about for different reasons. Where collaboration requires work growth it might be important to either lessen some of their obligations or to change the arrangement of pay and rewards. Collaboration is additionally frequently connected with strengthening, possession and included duty and supervisors more often than not expect that people want to be engaged with basic leadership as opposed to being instructed. While this might be valid much of the time, it isn’t valid in all cases. It might achieve distance for a few workers and at last prompt employment disappointment, work turnover and additionally diminished execution. There is no basic solution for this issue however preparing or a difference in position inside the association is frequently helpful if conceivable. A noteworthy danger of group building is that a colleague may end up critical of the association. Group building occasions must be supplemented with important work environment hone. Where colleagues don’t see a change inside an association related with group building occasions, they may view such occasions as an exercise in futility and this may subsequently bring about loss of trust in the association, hurt inspiration, diminish worker spirit and creation.
Another issue is what happens when the groups are not sufficiently trusted to settle on real choices and subsequently the groups and the association to which they have a place, are not achieving their true abilities. Looking for consent before executing thoughts diminishes convenience and possession. Nahavandi and Aranda (1994) affirm that advancement is additionally decreased as groups are compelled to recommend arrangements that are probably going to be acknowledged. Once more, colleagues may trust that administration is simply paying lip administration to the principal thoughts of collaboration a circumstance that more likely than not diminishes representative resolve. Failure to trust groups to settle on choices brings about groups taking up additional time than the framework they supplanted. The experience is comparable where coordination is required and various groups are reliant. This kind of test requires kept preparing and improvement of colleagues. Argote and McGrath (1993) recommends that coordination needs successful group administration and group execution requires a harmony amongst self-rule and decentralization of energy from one perspective, for both inspiration and adaptability, and brought together control then again, for coordination and consistency. As gets with all authoritative change and advancement activities, the hierarchical culture and atmosphere must be considered. One can’t accept that the objectives and estimations of representatives are the same as the objectives of administration, or even that objectives and qualities are predictable over the association. Representative states of mind about groups decide the probability of accomplishment. Carr (1992) watches that effective group usage includes an expansion of existing esteems yet group execution may likewise be valuable for wanted culture change. Cooperation requests such a move in dispositions, to the point that associations may swing to it when they need to accomplish a social change. Additionally essential are the impacts of group working as they identify with representatives’ families and individuals’ more extensive life needs. Disruptive treatment of representatives’ life partners and families undermine the unwaveringness and inspiration of workers, and make extra and pointless worry for specialists in close cherishing minding connections, particularly for youthful families, which have developed a solid affectability to such weights. Solid work duties put weight on representatives’ families and life partners and present day associations ought to do limiting the impacts, not exacerbating them. Groups of workers can be remunerated for their help and dedication, as opposed to distanced by making narrow minded staff-just occasions and advantages. Cultivating a sound work and home life adjust tends to influence associations to run smoother and less dangerously, particularly in regions of grievance and guiding, stress and struggle, debate and prosecution, enrollment and staff maintenance, progression arranging, organization notoriety and picture. There are likewise the ramifications and dangers of arranging socially flippant group occasions and exercises which influence execution, administration diversion, and staff maintenance; dangers of legitimate activity and awful reputation. A socially dependable boss ought to have the capacity to exhibit they have been properly cautious and steady in limiting such dangers while arranging any work occasions. At last, there are continually going to be those impervious to the general concept of “group building” or others whose safe place is little. This must be recognized and program that considers made.

2.7 Attributes of Effective Teamwork
Cooperation is characterized by Scarnati (2001, p. 5) “as a helpful procedure that enables common individuals to accomplish exceptional outcomes”. Harris and Harris (1996) likewise clarify that a group has a shared objective or reason where colleagues can create compelling, common connections to accomplish group objectives. Collaboration answers upon people cooperating in an agreeable situation to accomplish regular group objectives through sharing information and aptitudes. The writing reliably features that one of the basic components of a group is its concentration toward a shared objective and an unmistakable reason (Fisher, Hunter, and Macrosson, 1997; Johnson and Johnson, 1995, 1999; Parker, 1990; Harris and Harris, 1996). Groups are a necessary piece of numerous associations and ought to be joined as a component of the conveyance of tertiary units. Fruitful collaboration depends upon synergism existing between all colleagues making a situation where they are for the most part eager to contribute and take an interest keeping in mind the end goal to advance and sustain a positive, viable group condition. Colleagues must be sufficiently adaptable to adjust to agreeable workplaces where objectives are accomplished through joint effort and social relationship instead of individualized, focused objectives (Luca and Tarricone, 2001). Research has given various traits required for fruitful cooperation. A large number of these properties have been reliably recognized in the writing. Table 1 gives a rundown of writing on the fruitful properties required for powerful cooperation as takes after:
• Commitment to group achievement and shared objectives – colleagues are focused on the accomplishment of the group and their mutual objectives for the venture. Effective groups are roused, connected with and expect to accomplish at the most abnormal amount;
• Interdependence – colleagues need to make a situation where together they can contribute much more than as people. A constructive related group condition draws out the best in every individual empowering the group to accomplish their objectives at a far prevalent level (Johnson and Johnson, 1995, 1999). People advance and support their kindred colleagues to accomplish, contribute, and learn;
• Interpersonal Skills incorporates the capacity to examine issues transparently with colleagues, be straightforward, dependable, and steady and show regard and sense of duty regarding the group and to its people. Encouraging a minding workplace is imperative including the capacity to work adequately with other colleagues;
• Open Communication and positive input – currently tuning in to the worries and needs of colleagues and esteeming their commitment and communicating this makes a successful workplace. Colleagues ought to will to give and get helpful feedback and give bona fide criticism;
• Appropriate group organization is basic in the formation of a fruitful group. Colleagues should be completely mindful of their particular group part and comprehend what is anticipated from them as far as their commitment to the group and the task;
• Commitment to group forms, initiative and responsibility – colleagues should be responsible for their commitment to the group and the task. They should know about group forms, best practice and new thoughts. Compelling administration is basic for group achievement including shared basic leadership and critical thinking.

2.8 Teamwork and Team Performance
As indicated by Cohen and Bailey (1999) a representative group is a gathering of people who are associated in the undertakings and who share obligation regarding the results. Group’s empowers individuals to coordinate, upgrade singular abilities and give valuable input with no contention between people (Jones et al., 2007). Collaboration is an imperative factor for smooth working of an association. The majority of the authoritative exercises end up complex because of headway in innovation consequently collaboration is a noteworthy focal point of numerous associations. One research contemplate inferred that cooperation is important for a wide range of association including non-benefit associations (Pfaff and Huddleston, 2003). Colleagues improve the aptitudes, learning and capacities while working in groups (Froebel and Marchington, 2005).
Associations which underline more on groups have brings about expanded Team Performance, more noteworthy profitability and better critical thinking at work (Cohen and Bailey, 1999). One research ponder reasoned that to show people on the best way to work in groups isn’t a simple errand on the grounds that to show people in regards to work in groups is improper (Crosby, 1991). Bacon and Blyton (2006) featured the two essential elements i.e. self-administration group and relational group aptitudes. These components upgrade the correspondence and in addition relational connection between colleagues and furthermore help the Team Performances. Cooperation is a noteworthy device of new sort of work association. Collaboration is an exact authoritative measure that shows a wide range of highlights in all sort of associations including non-benefit (Mulika, 2010). One research think about reasoned that the great director is the person who appoints the obligations to his/her representative in a type of gathering or group keeping in mind the end goal to take most extreme yield from workers (Ingram, 2000). Another examination reasoned that it ought to be conceivable to plan an arrangement of group working inside each association for representatives with a specific end goal to advance and appropriate best practice and amplify yield. The principle accentuation for planning and executing such a framework is at last to enhance worker educating (Washer, 2006). As indicated by Ingram (2000) cooperation is a methodology that can possibly enhance the execution of people and associations, yet it should be sustained after some time. Associations need to take a gander at procedures for enhancing execution in the light of progressively focused situations. Top directors need the vision to present cooperation exercises inside the associations, the affectability to feed it and the boldness to allow groups to have a vital impact in basic leadership. Conti and Kleiner (2003) detailed that groups offer more prominent investment, difficulties and sentiments of achievement. Associations with groups will draw in and hold the best individuals. This thus will make a superior association that is adaptable, effective and in particular, gainful. Concentrate reasoned that the great chief is the person who allots the obligations to his/her representative in a type of gathering or group keeping in mind the end goal to take most extreme yield from workers (Ingram, 2000). Another investigation inferred that it ought to be conceivable to plan an arrangement of group working inside each association for representatives with a specific end goal to advance and appropriate best practice and expand yield.

2.9 Conceptual Framework
Based on the theories on teamwork and its relationship with achievement of targets, the study presents a conceptual framework. Authors have given diverse views on achievement of targets, the organizational culture, various job descriptions, job satisfaction and skills of the employees.

Therefore, it is preferred to reposition a number of these variables and processes into a new conceptual framework that serves as a guide to integrate theoretical perspectives that interlink these variables and processes and help to explain impact of team work in organizations.

Independent VariableDependent Variable
left5715Team Work
Team Work
right5715Employee Performance
Employee Performance

169544915875
Hypothesis
H0: Team work has no relation with employee performance.

H1: Team work has relationship with employee performance.

Chapter 3
Methodology
3.1 Introduction
Chapter three is consist of research methodology, analysis procedures and techniques, research instrument and methods of data collection, primary data collection and secondary data collection, research population size, research sample size and sampling design.

Research Methodology
Since the research is about impact of teamwork on employee performance at Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute, the research nature is descriptive. The descriptive research method can contain different kinds of information and inputs from human.

3.3 Population
The population of the research is employees and lecturers of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute in Kabul. In total, 97 employees and 72 lecturers are operating in Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute.

3.4 Sample and Sampling techniques
The sample size of the research is 40 to 50 % management employees and lecturers of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute in Kabul. The primary data of the research is collected from the (sample size) through questionnaire in Kabul. Random sampling method is used for selection of research respondents among staff of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute on the basis of their interest and willingness to fill the questionnaires.

3.5 Data collection
This research is consist of primary and secondary information. Secondary information for the research are gathered from research papers, articles published in journals and books. Primary information are collected through questionnaire form employees and lecturers of ATVI.

3.6 Instrumentation
The main tool of primary data collection is questionnaire. The questionnaire is based on the research variables, there are questions related to dependent variable and there is another part where the questions are related to independent variable.

3.6.1 Data collection procedure
Data of the research are collected from employees and lecturers of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute in Kabul. The questionnaire were distributed to the staff of ATVI in Kabul that are working in different fields at ATVI for filling and obtaining primary information of this research physically and through email.
Data Analysis Procedure
Primary data was collected and analyzed in SPSS using descriptive statistics. Frequency and percentage analysis, impact analysis or multiple regression analysis are the main analysis of this research that describe findings of the research.

3.7 Scope and Limitation
The scopes of this research are employees and lecturers of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute, the research looks at teamwork in relation to employee performance.

Due to the promise of privacy taken by people who were concerned; it was difficult for them to reveal information which would have been required on the topic. The target groups were having little interest in providing data. In some cases they were unwilling to supply the required information.

Despite these limitations, a thorough observation was done during the study, to reduce the limitations so that conclusions that were drawn would be acceptable.

Chapter 4
Analysis and Findings
Analysis and Findings
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.761 22
Value of alpha in the reliability test table is 0.761 for 22 questions in the questionnaire. The minimum standard for alpha is 0.70, whereas alpha of this research is higher the minimum.

4.2 Regression Analysis
The research study uses multiple regression analysis in order to analyze impact of independent variables on dependent variable. The multiple regression model is as under:
Y = ?+?1X1+?2X2+?3X3+ ?4X4+?……….. (1) Where Y is Employee Retention (dependent variable) ? is constant X is other factors affecting Performance ? is the regression coefficient which may be positively or negatively affecting dependent and independent variables.

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .454a .206 .194 3.74759
a. Predictors: (Constant), Teamwork
The coefficient of determination R2 = 0.206 which show that 20.6 % of variation in employee performance is due to teamwork in organization.

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 247.339 1 247.339 17.611 .000b
Residual 955.020 68 14.044 Total 1202.359 69 a. Dependent Variable: Performance
b. Predictors: (Constant), Teamwork
The F value is 17.611 and is significant because the significance level is = .000 which is less than P ? 0.05. This implies that over all regression model is statistically significant, valid and fit. The valid regression model implies that all independent variables are explaining that there is a positive and significant relationship with dependent variable.

Coefficients
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 10.820 2.140 5.055 .000
Teamwork .545 .130 .454 4.197 .000
Dependent Variable: Performance
Coefficients table talks about the influence of independent variable on the dependent variable, the influence can be both positive and negative. If the B value is positive it shows that the relationship of team work and employee performance is positive or increase in team work leads the employee performance in a positive way, but if the value of B was negative then it means increase in team work would have negative effect and decrease the performance of employees.

In this research, the independent variables has its importance and impact on dependent variable. As in the table, the B value of team work is 0.545 which means 100 percent increase in team work will increase the employee performance by 54.5 percent and vice versa and the Significance value of variable is less than 0.000 which is less than the standard 0.05.

Gender
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Male 110 78.6 78.6 78.6
Female 30 21.4 21.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Research sample size is 140 respondents, the respondents are the management employees and lecturers of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute. From 140 respondents 110 of them are male and 30 of them are female.

I am
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Lecturer 84 60.0 60.0 60.0
Management Employee 56 40.0 40.0 100
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
The research respondents are consist of 84 lecturers and 56 management employees of ATVI located in Kabul.

Trust among team member is important in teamwork
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 38 27.1 27.1 27.1
Agree 72 51.4 51.4 78.6
Neutral 16 11.4 11.4 90.0
Disagree 10 7.1 7.1 97.1
Strongly Disagree 4 2.9 2.9 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Trust among team member is important in teamwork, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 27.1% strongly agree, 51.4% agree, 11.4% neutral, 7.1% disagree and 2.9% strongly agree.

Team members should take equal participation in the assigned tasks
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 32 22.9 22.9 22.9
Agree 48 34.3 34.3 57.1
Neutral 60 42.9 42.9 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Team members should take equal participation in the assigned tasks, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 22.9% strongly agree, 34.3% agree, and 42.9% neutral.

Team members should respect each other
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 112 80.0 80.0 80.0
Agree 28 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interoperation:
Team members should respect each other, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 80% strongly agree and other 20% agree.

Effective teams are consist of members who are focusing on the assigned tasks
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 74 52.9 52.9 52.9
Agree 66 47.1 47.1 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretations:
Effective teams are consist of members who are focusing on the assigned tasks, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 52.9% strongly agree and 47.1% agree.

The members of effective teams assist each other in progress of the tasks
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 104 74.3 74.3 74.3
Agree 36 25.7 25.7 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
The members of effective teams assist each other in progress of the tasks, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 74.3% strongly agree and 25.7% agree.

The members of effective teams help each other in overcoming the obstacles they face
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 46 32.9 32.9 32.9
Agree 70 50.0 50.0 82.9
Neutral 14 10.0 10.0 92.9
Disagree 8 5.7 5.7 98.6
Strongly Disagree 2 1.4 1.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
The members of effective teams help each other in overcoming the obstacles they face, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 32.9% strongly agree, 50% agree, 11.4% neutral, 7.1% disagree and 2.9% strongly agree.

Vision and mission of team are important to be shared and discussed with all team members
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 36 25.7 25.7 25.7
Agree 80 57.1 57.1 82.9
Neutral 14 10.0 10.0 92.9
Disagree 8 5.7 5.7 98.6
Strongly Disagree 2 1.4 1.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Vision and mission of team are important to be shared and discussed with all team members, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 25.7% strongly agree, 57.1% agree, 10% neutral, 5.7% disagree and 1.4% strongly agree.

Effective teams are consist of diversity in talents and personalities of individuals
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 52 37.1 37.1 37.1
Agree 76 54.3 54.3 91.4
Neutral 10 7.1 7.1 98.6
Disagree 2 1.4 1.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Effective teams are consist of diversity in talents and personalities of individuals, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 37.1% strongly agree, 54.3% agree, 7.1% neutral, and 1.4% disagree.

Communication in effective teams are open and clear
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 52 37.1 37.1 37.1
Agree 56 40.0 40.0 77.1
Neutral 18 12.9 12.9 90.0
Disagree 8 5.7 5.7 95.7
Strongly Disagree 6 4.3 4.3 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Communication in effective teams are open and clear, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 37.1% strongly agree, 40% agree, 12.9% neutral, 5.7% disagree and 4.3% strongly agree.

The member of effective teams share their knowledge, experience and learning with other team members
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 16 11.4 11.4 11.4
Agree 62 44.3 44.3 55.7
Neutral 32 22.9 22.9 78.6
Disagree 20 14.3 14.3 92.9
Strongly Disagree 10 7.1 7.1 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
The member of effective teams share their knowledge, experience and learning with other team members, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 11.4% strongly agree, 44.3% agree, 22.9% neutral, 14.3% disagree and 7.1% strongly agree.

By team work employees can enhance their skills, knowledge and performance
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 12 8.6 8.6 8.6
Agree 64 45.7 45.7 54.3
Neutral 38 27.1 27.1 81.4
Disagree 22 15.7 15.7 97.1
Strongly Disagree 4 2.9 2.9 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
By team work employees can enhance their skills, knowledge and performance, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 8.6% strongly agree, 45.7% agree, 27.1% neutral, 15.7% disagree and 2.9% strongly agree.

Performance of employees can increase by teamwork
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 18 12.9 12.9 12.9
Agree 82 58.6 58.6 71.4
Neutral 18 12.9 12.9 84.3
Disagree 16 11.4 11.4 95.7
Strongly Disagree 6 4.3 4.3 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Performance of employees can increase by teamwork, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 12.9% strongly agree, 58.6% agree, 12.9% neutral, 11.4% disagree and 4.3% strongly agree.

All team members have equal opportunities for participation in debates and develop their confidence and skills
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 10 7.1 7.1 7.1
Agree 74 52.9 52.9 60.0
Neutral 40 28.6 28.6 88.6
Disagree 14 10.0 10.0 98.6
Strongly Disagree 2 1.4 1.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
All team members have equal opportunities for participation in debates and develop their confidence and skills, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 7.1% strongly agree, 52.9% agree, 28.6% neutral, 10% disagree and 1.4% strongly agree.

Work burden and pressure are distributed among team members
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 18 12.9 12.9 12.9
Agree 82 58.6 58.6 71.4
Neutral 18 12.9 12.9 84.3
Disagree 20 14.3 14.3 98.6
Strongly Disagree 2 1.4 1.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Work burden and pressure are distributed among team members, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 12.9% strongly agree, 58.6% agree, 12.9% neutral, 14.3% disagree and 1.4% strongly agree.

Teamwork involve all of the members in the progress of tasks
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 24 17.1 17.1 17.1
Agree 66 47.1 47.1 64.3
Neutral 26 18.6 18.6 82.9
Disagree 18 12.9 12.9 95.7
Strongly Disagree 6 4.3 4.3 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Teamwork involve all of the members in the progress of tasks, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 17.1% strongly agree, 47.1% agree, 18.6% neutral, 12.9% disagree and 4.3% strongly agree.

Tasks are performed in shorter time by teamwork
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 40 28.6 28.6 28.6
Agree 80 57.1 57.1 85.7
Neutral 10 7.1 7.1 92.9
Disagree 10 7.1 7.1 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Tasks are performed in shorter time by teamwork, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 28.6% strongly agree, 57.1% agree, 7.1% neutral, and 7.1% disagree.

Teamwork play vital role in enhancing employee performance
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 52 37.1 37.1 37.1
Agree 72 51.4 51.4 88.6
Neutral 16 11.4 11.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Teamwork play vital role in enhancing employee performance, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 37.1% strongly agree, 51.4% agree, and 11.4% neutral.

Teamwork ensures achieving organizational goals
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 50 35.7 35.7 35.7
Agree 70 50.0 50.0 85.7
Neutral 20 14.3 14.3 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Teamwork ensures achieving organizational goals, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 35.7% strongly agree, 50% agree, and 14.3% neutral.

Teamwork ensures the effective usage of resources
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 42 30.0 30.0 30.0
Agree 84 60.0 60.0 90.0
Neutral 8 5.7 5.7 95.7
Disagree 6 4.3 4.3 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Teamwork ensures the effective usage of resources, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 30% strongly agree, 60% agree, 5.7% neutral, and 4.3% disagree.

Teamwork encourage employee to learn new things
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 50 35.7 35.7 35.7
Agree 76 54.3 54.3 90.0
Neutral 14 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Teamwork encourage employee to learn new things, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 35.7% strongly agree, 54.3% agree, and 10% neutral.

Chapter 5
Conclusion
This research is conducted to see the impact of team work on employee performance at Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute. The research population was the management employees and lecturers of ATVI. Secondary data for literature review was collected from different books, previously done research article on the topic and the published researches on the internet. The primary data for the research was collected from management employees and lecturers of ATVI through a group wise designed questionnaire. The questionnaire have separate parts for dependent and independent variables and there is demographic questions as well.

The collected primary data was further analyzed in SPSS. Major analysis for this research is regression analysis and secondary analysis is frequency analysis. From the findings of the research the study has come to the following conclusion.

In relation to the effect of team work on employee performance at ATVI, the research recognized that there is a positive and significant relationship between employee performance and team work, the team work should not be ignored and the management of ATVI should consider to maintain a balanced and good team work across ATVI.

The findings also shows, delegation of job should be equally allocated to staff across the organization to assist employees and lecturers to bring their diverse way of performing tasks and culture into team. Appreciation and acceptance of ideas and culture of other team members is highly recommended and fair treatment of all employees is another factor that should be considered inside a team. Employee contribution is another factor of that leads a team to be more successful.

Regarding the team work and job description, the findings of the research shows that satisfactory and fair job description are not distributed well among team members. One team member is job description is as heavy as he or she is overloaded but in contrast another team member work load is too low that he or she has more spare time during official timings of the organization. This was done through the staff appraisals and supervision of the different tasks given to the employees.

Related to job satisfaction of team members and other employees and lecturers of ATVI the findings show, only a small number of top level managers are struggling to design and create teams or they use the strategies to promote and achieve the best result of team work. They provide flexible working condition and environment to their subordinates.

A range of reasons were established as to why organizations form teams: the study established that, organizational objectives, building organizational reputation, producing greater level of performance, increasing employees’ organizational commitment and to offer quality services to customers were the major reasons for the formation of teams in organizations.

Recommendations
Organizations should support the team work and build policies for the enhancement and practice of team work. Through team work productivity increases in a company.

Organizations should develop an internal atmosphere where employees feel their selves well satisfied form the job and become cooperative and friendly with each other during working hours.

The team work makes the employee more active, all of team members try to take active part in the works and activities. Through team work employees try to use their full capacity in performing the jobs.

Managerial Implication
Based on findings and the research, some of the beneficial and practical suggestions are for the managers and team leaders of ATVI. Team leaders should be aware of any activity inside a team, roles and actions of all team members should be monitored for the purpose of preventing conflict between team members. Conflict in teams and groups is something unavoidable, the role of manager or team leader is to find the source of conflict and order the team members to follow what is said. These acts can make a positive change in formation of teams and help teams in performing better.

Stress of team members another main issue. Some of the team members would have stress, the team leader should observe and discuss with that team member, if required guide the team member on solution of his or her stress. Sometimes team member’s qualification and expertise will not be the same and it emerges stress. The team member with higher expertly and knowledge should help other team members to enhance team performance and productivity.

5.4 Recommendations for Future Research
Each team has a team leader, the team leader has major effect on the performance of a team. A future research is needed to find the impact of team leader on performance of team.

Relationship among team members is another key to success and failure of a team. A research could be conducted on the title “impact of leader and subordinate relationship on the achievement of team goal”.

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Questionnaire of the Study
I am
Male
Female
I am
Lecturer
Management employee
Questions regarding independent variable (Team Work)
SA= Strongly AgreeA= AgreeN= NeutralDA= DisagreeSDA= Strongly Disagree
Trust among team member is important in teamwork
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Team members should take equal participation in the assigned tasks
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Team members should respect each other
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Effective teams are consist of members who are focusing on the assigned tasks
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
The members of effective teams assist each other in progress of the tasks
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
The members of effective teams help each other in overcoming the obstacles they face
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Vision and mission of team are important to be shared and discussed with all team members
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Effective teams are consist of diversity in talents and personalities of individuals
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Communication in effective teams are open and clear
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
The member of effective teams share their knowledge, experience and learning with other team members
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork and Employee performance
By team work employees can enhance their skills, knowledge and performance
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Performance of employees can increase by teamwork
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
All team members have equal opportunities for participation in debates and develop their confidence and skills
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Work burden and pressure are distributed among team members
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork involve all of the members in the progress of tasks
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Tasks are performed in shorter time by teamwork
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork play vital role in enhancing employee performance
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork ensures achieving organizational goals
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork ensures the effective usage of resources
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork encourage employee to learn new things
SA
A
N
DA
SDA

Impact of team work on employee performance
A study at ATVI (Afghanistan Technical Vocational Institute) Kabul
Chapter One
Introduction:
This chapter presents the background information, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research question and significance of the study.

1.2 Background of the study
Team can be described as a group of people who work together to achieve the same goals and objectives for the good of the service users and organizations in order to deliver a good quality of service.

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Teamwork is the process of working collaboratively with a group of people in order to achieve a goal. The external factors of teamwork are the political, economic, social and technological factors that affect teamwork whiles the internal factors of teamwork constitute leadership style, diversity (culture, talent and personalities) communication, cohesiveness etc. which affects teamwork.
Teamwork is as old as mankind, and many organizations use the term teamwork in either one sense or the other, such as in the production, marketing processes, etc. Management team, production team or an entire organization can be referred as a team. Cook (1998) claimed that there is a growing consensus among scholars in the world that organizations may be getting works done through individuals, but his super achievement lies in the attainment of set goals through teams (teamwork). It is a well-known fact that teamwork is not only the foundation of all successful managements, but the means of improving overall results in organizational productivity. Wage (1997) described Teamwork as an idea of working together in a group to achieve the same goals and objectives for the good of the service users and organizations in order to deliver a good quality of service (productivity).

McShone (1998) said that teams are replacing individuals as the basic building blocks of organization – French language television programs has shifted to team-based projects and giving more recognition to teams than to individuals. Companies are not just looking for technical ability but looking for people who can work on teams and solve problems.
According to Steiner (1972) teams and teamwork are not novel concepts; teams and team thinking have been around for years at companies such as Procter and Gamble; and Botany. In the 1980s the manufacturing and auto industries embraced a new team-oriented approach when United States firms retooled to combat Japanese competitor who were quickly gaining market share. Brown et al (1996) examined that managers discovered the large body of research indicating that teams can be more than the tradition corporate structure for making decisions quickly and efficiently. He further said that teams needed for the restructuring and reengineering processes of the future giving instances that simple changes like encouraging input and feedbacks from workers on the line make dramatic improvements.

Hence companies have to encourage teamwork in order to gain competitive advantage because its base where new ideas come from. To employees teamwork is seen as constituting a larger group of people than what job position describes. The essence of teamwork is that workload is reduced and broken into pieces of work for everyone to take part.

1.3 Research Problem Statement
Teamwork can accomplish what the individual cannot do on his or her own. Every organization, either large or small, struggles to acquire productivity so as to achieve success and maintain a valuable image in this present world of organizational competitions. Besides, it is the wish of organizations to see the input they use (resources) and the output (goods and services produced) they have at the end.
Lack of teamwork in the organization that is the failure of an organization to coordinate works into work groups in order to tap from the respective human resources the organization possesses. In today’s society, there have been so much emphasis on pride and personal achievement at work place; where by the concept of teamwork seems to be overlooked by managers and employees, due to this management sees less essence of teamwork as a major tool of performance which has lead them to poor performance and productivity in the industry market. Therefore the study seeks to identify the impact teamwork has on employee performance.

The management system of Afghanistan Technical Vocational Institute lacks team work in the major group tasks those tasks could be done more effective through team work like; preparation and holding aptitude test of students with ministry of higher education and Kabul University and many other tasks that could be done in shape of team. The practice of team work at ATVI is very less, this research reveals the fruitfulness and efficiency of team work, further the research may encourage employees and professors of ATVI to work as team for better result and performance.

1.4 Research Questions
For the purpose of this research, the following research questions was formulated to guide the research:
What ways does teamwork effect on employee’s performance?
1.5 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the impact of teamwork on employee performance. The specific objectives of this study are as listed below:
To find out the effect of teamwork on employee performance.

To identify the positive or negative effects of teamwork on employees
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is very much important to maintain the healthy advantages of productivity as a result of its importance to organizations. And teamwork is the best tool which can be used in helping us to achieve it (organizational productivity). Looking at the important role that teamwork can play, to enable organizations achieve this, this study will be very significant to organizations, employers and employees, students, managers and future researchers.

1.7 Scheme of the Study
Chapter one; which is the introduction covers the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, and organization of the study. Chapter two covers the literature review on the impact of teamwork on organizational productivity. Chapter three introduces the methodology employed in the conduction of the research. Chapter four looks at the general information, data analysis and discussion of the data. Chapter five captures the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study or research.

Chapter 2
Literature Review2.1 Team in Organization ConceptA group is a gathering of individuals working towards a shared objective. Group Building includes the way toward empowering the gathering of individuals to achieve their objectives. It comprises of steps like elucidation of group objectives; distinguishing proof of preventions to objective accomplishments; confronting the recognized difficulties and empowering the accomplishment of the objectives. Fajana (2002) affirms that collaboration is a reconciliation of assets and information sources working in concordance to accomplish hierarchical objectives, where parts are endorsed for each association part, challenges are similarly confronted and incremental changes are looked for consistently. Katzenbach and Smith (1993) noticed that a group can basically be characterized as few individuals, with an arrangement of execution objectives, who have a promise to a typical reason and an approach for which they consider themselves commonly responsible. The proposal here is that groups must be of a reasonable size and that all colleagues must be resolved to achieve group objectives. Likewise, the colleagues must be mutually responsible for their activities and the results of these activities. There are two fundamental abilities in the group building process. The main includes perceiving the correct issues, and the second needs to do with handling them in a proper way and request. Group building has different structures relying upon the size and nature of the group. For example in circumstances where group organization is ceaselessly changing, the accentuation is on building up the aptitudes in people to be powerful colleagues and it tries to change the aptitudes and capacities of the person at working inside a group or inside different groups. In any case, where group enrollment is moderately static like in administration groups the accentuation is on endeavors went for enhancing connections between colleagues. The biggest scale is that of hierarchical group building. Except for the senior administration group, the capacity of people to have an effect on the corporate culture is extremely constrained. One of the key points of the group building is to change the practices and states of mind pervasive in the association, which are relatively free of who really works there. Group building doesn’t simply mean getting the group together. It is more than non specific exercises forced upon groups with no genuine thought for what the group needs or needs. There is requirement for a more thought about approach or more all, something where the destinations are unmistakably expressed and can be met. It is important to consider particular issues that should be tended to and the sorts or identities engaged with the group. Dianna (2006) asserts that cooperation is a type of aggregate work that may include singular undertakings, yet generally includes some sort of aggregate errand where every part is contributing piece of an all things considered composed record that should mirror the aggregate astuteness of the gathering. Instead of gathering work, which depends on trade, cooperation depends on dialog. Dialog happens when every part shares their view, and is heard by whatever remains of the gathering. Dialog requires decency so every part’s thoughts are broadcast and partook balancedly. It can require more investment than trade, yet with training, a period guardian, and a couple of standards, gatherings can make reasonable dialogs that are likewise time effective. Since the undertakings are normally aggregate, the common results of collaboration exchanges are transaction and trade off. While no individuals may get all their own particular manner, the result dependably mirrors the best reasoning and needs of each gathering part. Cooperation can be very proficient since it brings about everybody feeling that his or her perspective is enough spoken to and represented. The discourse distinguishes every individual’s most elevated needs and the arrangement and trade off blends these into a result that mirrors the gathering’s aggregate needs for progress.

2.2 The formation of Team in OrganizationThe term ‘group building’ is regularly used to portray different exercises and a significant part of the writing looked into gives changing definitions and phrasing. Salas et al. (1999) directed an integrative investigation of group assembling and noticed that one of the difficulties in checking on the writing was the sheer decent variety of group building intercessions. As per Salas et al. (1999) the uncertain idea of the term ‘group building’ has prompted the term being characterized comprehensively in surviving writing incorporating mediations that are “thoughtfully very disparate” (p. 324).
The writing investigated for this exploration uncovered a huge number of group building mediations extending from physically difficult undertakings, for example, abseiling, shake climbing and other comparative open air interests to ‘diversions’ that require barely any props, are not physically requesting, and can be embraced inside or outside and in any area.
Numerous scholastics have made a qualification between the demonstration and motivation behind group building. McShane and Travaglione (2003) characterize the demonstration of group working as far as enhancing work groups. Woodman and Sherwood (1980) talk about group working as arranged intercessions that emphasis on creating group critical thinking and viability and are encouraged by an outsider specialist while as per Toofany (2007) the reason for group building is to upgrade hierarchical adequacy. This is generally refined by attempted assignments that add to or upgrade the general viability of a group. Svyantek, Goodman, Benz and Gard (1999) limited the reason by means of their meta-investigation of related group building examination to upgrading the relational and critical thinking abilities of colleagues.
Mazany, Francis and Sumich (1995) characterize group working as an interest in the “general population asset of an association” (p. 51). Mazany et al. exclude the term intercession rather settling on a more summed up definition which is huge as the term ‘mediation’ may suggest that there is an issue requiring therapeutic activity. This is an imperative qualification as both of the associations who took part in this examination (alluded in the future as ‘DiggerCo’ and ‘FizzCo’) did not see the group working as an intercession, yet rather an affirmation of the significance of giving on-going preparing and advancement activities. As Robbins et al. (2008) watch, these exercises eventually add to the general improvement of authoritative adequacy and representative prosperity.
For clearness and to likewise mirror the goals of the two associations who took an interest in this examination, the term ‘exercises’ as opposed to ‘intercessions’ is utilized for the adjust of this proposal, unless the specialist is citing an immediate reference.

2.3 Reasons of Team Building in Organization
Lager (1976), Dyer (1977), Buller (1986), Sundstom, De Meuse and Futrell (1990), Robbins et al. (2008) talk about group working as including four key components: objective setting, relational relations, critical thinking, and part elucidation. In embraced foundation investigate for this proposition, and talking about the points with different group building facilitators, it turned out to be evident that objective setting, critical thinking and relational relations were constantly the most well-known drivers for organizations choosing group working as an authoritative advancement device. On account of this the determination criteria for this examination stipulates that any piece of, or the majority of the three most regular goals, must shape some portion of the general plan brief.
The oversight or consideration of any of the four targets is in accordance with the Robbins et al. (2008) perception that group building exercises may join any or these destinations in fluctuating degrees, and that the determination of the goals is exclusively reliant on the requirements of the association at the time.
Group building has a few noteworthy destinations one of which is improving great interchanges with members as colleagues and people. There is additionally expanded efficiency and imagination. Another target of group building is to accomplish better working strategies and methodology consequently inspiring colleagues to accomplish objectives. It is likewise gone for guaranteeing clear work targets and an atmosphere of participation and shared critical thinking. Moreover group building improves more elevated amounts of trust and support. With group building, differing associates function admirably together and there are more elevated amounts of employment fulfillment and responsibility.

2.4 Effective Teams and Effective Team Building
Katzenbach and Smith (1993) records the accompanying necessities for building viable groups:
(i)It ought to be sufficiently little in the quantity of individuals.
(ii)Adequate levels of integral aptitudes.
(iii)Truly significant reason.
(iv)Specific objective or objectives.

(v)Established clear way to deal with the collaboration.
(vi)A feeling of common responsibility.
(vii)Defined fitting authority structure.
Powerful group working requires discovering time, choosing colleagues, engaging colleagues, giving preparing in significant aptitudes and learning, creating shared objectives, and encouraging group working – especially in the beginning times of the collaboration. Successful groups are painstakingly composed. When collecting a group it is essential to think about the general flow of the group. La Fasto (2001) distinguishes five flow that are crucial to group achievement. The primary dynamic is group participation. Fruitful groups are comprised of an accumulation of powerful people who are experienced, have critical thinking capacity, are available to tending to the issue and are activity arranged. Second is group relationship which needs to do with the capacity of colleagues to give and get criticism. The third powerful is group critical thinking which suggests that group adequacy relies upon the level of center and clearness of the objectives of the group. Fourth is group authority. Powerful group authority relies upon initiative capabilities. A skillful pioneer is.

2.5 The Prospects of Teamwork
The possibilities of collaboration may fluctuate for crosswise over associations since they are reliant on a few components, similar to the way of life and atmosphere, adequacy of group administration, and the association. Awesome groups get things going more than whatever else in associations. Enabled groups get the best outcomes. Enabling individuals has more to do with state of mind and conduct towards staff than procedures and apparatuses. Pile (1996), Roufaiel and Meissner (1995), Sundstrom, De Meuse &Futrell (1990) recommend that as a response to expanded rivalry groups are being actualized in consistently expanding numbers. Added to worldwide rivalry, there is additionally a developing need to cook for specialty advertises and to contend on cost, and advancement. The resultant impact is that organizations can never again depend on large scale manufacturing and economies of scale to contend in the commercial center. Groups give representatives expanded self-governance, expanded support, and proprietorship with respect to choices, they can in this way augment authoritative development. As opposed to being instructed representatives are given objectives, or they create objectives with their group pioneers, and are without then to settle on the best technique for accomplishing the objectives. Groups likewise give different attractions to the associations where they work. To begin with, groups advance the utilization of HR by enabling associations to access singular learning and abilities. A ramifications of expanded multifaceted nature is that directors can never again know everything about all parts of association activities and it is basic that the information and aptitudes of the workforce be used. Second, as Wageman (1997) affirms groups upgrade hierarchical learning since representatives can try and make procedures that are most appropriate to their work. Katzenbach and Smith (1993) takes note of that groups can make a collaboration by achieve picks up in singular profitability and proficiency. Kirkman and Shapiro (1997) confirms that groups achieve expanded levels of occupation fulfillment, inspiration and representative duty since they are related with a more prominent assortment of assignments and included obligation regarding colleagues. The resultant impacts of this incorporate lessened staff turnover and non-attendance and thus decrease in hierarchical expenses and enhanced association memory or information base.

2.6 Weaknesses and Challenges to Teamwork:
The usage of groups is, on a very basic level, a hierarchical change and improvement process. Groups are, in this way, powerless to every one of the difficulties that can happen amid any hierarchical change process. Specifically, representative protection may come about where workers are required to work with different workers with whom they are new. For this situation, the new groups are separating set up social connections. One manner by which this can be overcome is through teambuilding. Field and Swift (1996) takes note of that groups regularly confront issues that can diminish the adequacy of the group and particularly its capacity to decide. The group may not share clear objectives or purposes, and along these lines as prior examined characterizing particular objectives is essential. The time exchange offs in basic leadership (group basic leadership can remove time from working. There might be issues of “mindless obedience” and strain to adjust and in addition the potential for expanded clash over basic leadership. Without satisfactory group preparing and planning, it is far-fetched that groups will work adequately to create and understand a common vision. There are likewise the difficulties emerging from absence of correspondence; individual clash; overemphasis on give and take relationship. Teambuilding endeavors to ‘enhance aggregate execution by enhancing correspondence, diminishing clash, and creating more noteworthy attachment and duty among work amass individuals. Worker protection may likewise come about for different reasons. Where collaboration requires work growth it might be important to either lessen some of their obligations or to change the arrangement of pay and rewards. Collaboration is additionally frequently connected with strengthening, possession and included duty and supervisors more often than not expect that people want to be engaged with basic leadership as opposed to being instructed. While this might be valid much of the time, it isn’t valid in all cases. It might achieve distance for a few workers and at last prompt employment disappointment, work turnover and additionally diminished execution. There is no basic solution for this issue however preparing or a difference in position inside the association is frequently helpful if conceivable. A noteworthy danger of group building is that a colleague may end up critical of the association. Group building occasions must be supplemented with important work environment hone. Where colleagues don’t see a change inside an association related with group building occasions, they may view such occasions as an exercise in futility and this may subsequently bring about loss of trust in the association, hurt inspiration, diminish worker spirit and creation.
Another issue is what happens when the groups are not sufficiently trusted to settle on real choices and subsequently the groups and the association to which they have a place, are not achieving their true abilities. Looking for consent before executing thoughts diminishes convenience and possession. Nahavandi and Aranda (1994) affirm that advancement is additionally decreased as groups are compelled to recommend arrangements that are probably going to be acknowledged. Once more, colleagues may trust that administration is simply paying lip administration to the principal thoughts of collaboration a circumstance that more likely than not diminishes representative resolve. Failure to trust groups to settle on choices brings about groups taking up additional time than the framework they supplanted. The experience is comparable where coordination is required and various groups are reliant. This kind of test requires kept preparing and improvement of colleagues. Argote and McGrath (1993) recommends that coordination needs successful group administration and group execution requires a harmony amongst self-rule and decentralization of energy from one perspective, for both inspiration and adaptability, and brought together control then again, for coordination and consistency. As gets with all authoritative change and advancement activities, the hierarchical culture and atmosphere must be considered. One can’t accept that the objectives and estimations of representatives are the same as the objectives of administration, or even that objectives and qualities are predictable over the association. Representative states of mind about groups decide the probability of accomplishment. Carr (1992) watches that effective group usage includes an expansion of existing esteems yet group execution may likewise be valuable for wanted culture change. Cooperation requests such a move in dispositions, to the point that associations may swing to it when they need to accomplish a social change. Additionally essential are the impacts of group working as they identify with representatives’ families and individuals’ more extensive life needs. Disruptive treatment of representatives’ life partners and families undermine the unwaveringness and inspiration of workers, and make extra and pointless worry for specialists in close cherishing minding connections, particularly for youthful families, which have developed a solid affectability to such weights. Solid work duties put weight on representatives’ families and life partners and present day associations ought to do limiting the impacts, not exacerbating them. Groups of workers can be remunerated for their help and dedication, as opposed to distanced by making narrow minded staff-just occasions and advantages. Cultivating a sound work and home life adjust tends to influence associations to run smoother and less dangerously, particularly in regions of grievance and guiding, stress and struggle, debate and prosecution, enrollment and staff maintenance, progression arranging, organization notoriety and picture. There are likewise the ramifications and dangers of arranging socially flippant group occasions and exercises which influence execution, administration diversion, and staff maintenance; dangers of legitimate activity and awful reputation. A socially dependable boss ought to have the capacity to exhibit they have been properly cautious and steady in limiting such dangers while arranging any work occasions. At last, there are continually going to be those impervious to the general concept of “group building” or others whose safe place is little. This must be recognized and program that considers made.

2.7 Attributes of Effective Teamwork
Cooperation is characterized by Scarnati (2001, p. 5) “as a helpful procedure that enables common individuals to accomplish exceptional outcomes”. Harris and Harris (1996) likewise clarify that a group has a shared objective or reason where colleagues can create compelling, common connections to accomplish group objectives. Collaboration answers upon people cooperating in an agreeable situation to accomplish regular group objectives through sharing information and aptitudes. The writing reliably features that one of the basic components of a group is its concentration toward a shared objective and an unmistakable reason (Fisher, Hunter, and Macrosson, 1997; Johnson and Johnson, 1995, 1999; Parker, 1990; Harris and Harris, 1996). Groups are a necessary piece of numerous associations and ought to be joined as a component of the conveyance of tertiary units. Fruitful collaboration depends upon synergism existing between all colleagues making a situation where they are for the most part eager to contribute and take an interest keeping in mind the end goal to advance and sustain a positive, viable group condition. Colleagues must be sufficiently adaptable to adjust to agreeable workplaces where objectives are accomplished through joint effort and social relationship instead of individualized, focused objectives (Luca and Tarricone, 2001). Research has given various traits required for fruitful cooperation. A large number of these properties have been reliably recognized in the writing. Table 1 gives a rundown of writing on the fruitful properties required for powerful cooperation as takes after:
• Commitment to group achievement and shared objectives – colleagues are focused on the accomplishment of the group and their mutual objectives for the venture. Effective groups are roused, connected with and expect to accomplish at the most abnormal amount;
• Interdependence – colleagues need to make a situation where together they can contribute much more than as people. A constructive related group condition draws out the best in every individual empowering the group to accomplish their objectives at a far prevalent level (Johnson and Johnson, 1995, 1999). People advance and support their kindred colleagues to accomplish, contribute, and learn;
• Interpersonal Skills incorporates the capacity to examine issues transparently with colleagues, be straightforward, dependable, and steady and show regard and sense of duty regarding the group and to its people. Encouraging a minding workplace is imperative including the capacity to work adequately with other colleagues;
• Open Communication and positive input – currently tuning in to the worries and needs of colleagues and esteeming their commitment and communicating this makes a successful workplace. Colleagues ought to will to give and get helpful feedback and give bona fide criticism;
• Appropriate group organization is basic in the formation of a fruitful group. Colleagues should be completely mindful of their particular group part and comprehend what is anticipated from them as far as their commitment to the group and the task;
• Commitment to group forms, initiative and responsibility – colleagues should be responsible for their commitment to the group and the task. They should know about group forms, best practice and new thoughts. Compelling administration is basic for group achievement including shared basic leadership and critical thinking.

2.8 Teamwork and Team Performance
As indicated by Cohen and Bailey (1999) a representative group is a gathering of people who are associated in the undertakings and who share obligation regarding the results. Group’s empowers individuals to coordinate, upgrade singular abilities and give valuable input with no contention between people (Jones et al., 2007). Collaboration is an imperative factor for smooth working of an association. The majority of the authoritative exercises end up complex because of headway in innovation consequently collaboration is a noteworthy focal point of numerous associations. One research contemplate inferred that cooperation is important for a wide range of association including non-benefit associations (Pfaff and Huddleston, 2003). Colleagues improve the aptitudes, learning and capacities while working in groups (Froebel and Marchington, 2005).
Associations which underline more on groups have brings about expanded Team Performance, more noteworthy profitability and better critical thinking at work (Cohen and Bailey, 1999). One research ponder reasoned that to show people on the best way to work in groups isn’t a simple errand on the grounds that to show people in regards to work in groups is improper (Crosby, 1991). Bacon and Blyton (2006) featured the two essential elements i.e. self-administration group and relational group aptitudes. These components upgrade the correspondence and in addition relational connection between colleagues and furthermore help the Team Performances. Cooperation is a noteworthy device of new sort of work association. Collaboration is an exact authoritative measure that shows a wide range of highlights in all sort of associations including non-benefit (Mulika, 2010). One research think about reasoned that the great director is the person who appoints the obligations to his/her representative in a type of gathering or group keeping in mind the end goal to take most extreme yield from workers (Ingram, 2000). Another examination reasoned that it ought to be conceivable to plan an arrangement of group working inside each association for representatives with a specific end goal to advance and appropriate best practice and amplify yield. The principle accentuation for planning and executing such a framework is at last to enhance worker educating (Washer, 2006). As indicated by Ingram (2000) cooperation is a methodology that can possibly enhance the execution of people and associations, yet it should be sustained after some time. Associations need to take a gander at procedures for enhancing execution in the light of progressively focused situations. Top directors need the vision to present cooperation exercises inside the associations, the affectability to feed it and the boldness to allow groups to have a vital impact in basic leadership. Conti and Kleiner (2003) detailed that groups offer more prominent investment, difficulties and sentiments of achievement. Associations with groups will draw in and hold the best individuals. This thus will make a superior association that is adaptable, effective and in particular, gainful. Concentrate reasoned that the great chief is the person who allots the obligations to his/her representative in a type of gathering or group keeping in mind the end goal to take most extreme yield from workers (Ingram, 2000). Another investigation inferred that it ought to be conceivable to plan an arrangement of group working inside each association for representatives with a specific end goal to advance and appropriate best practice and expand yield.

2.9 Conceptual Framework
Based on the theories on teamwork and its relationship with achievement of targets, the study presents a conceptual framework. Authors have given diverse views on achievement of targets, the organizational culture, various job descriptions, job satisfaction and skills of the employees.

Therefore, it is preferred to reposition a number of these variables and processes into a new conceptual framework that serves as a guide to integrate theoretical perspectives that interlink these variables and processes and help to explain impact of team work in organizations.

Independent VariableDependent Variable
left5715Team Work
Team Work
right5715Employee Performance
Employee Performance

169544915875
Hypothesis
H0: Team work has no relation with employee performance.

H1: Team work has relationship with employee performance.

Chapter 3
Methodology
3.1 Introduction
Chapter three is consist of research methodology, analysis procedures and techniques, research instrument and methods of data collection, primary data collection and secondary data collection, research population size, research sample size and sampling design.

Research Methodology
Since the research is about impact of teamwork on employee performance at Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute, the research nature is descriptive. The descriptive research method can contain different kinds of information and inputs from human.

3.3 Population
The population of the research is employees and lecturers of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute in Kabul. In total, 97 employees and 72 lecturers are operating in Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute.

3.4 Sample and Sampling techniques
The sample size of the research is 40 to 50 % management employees and lecturers of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute in Kabul. The primary data of the research is collected from the (sample size) through questionnaire in Kabul. Random sampling method is used for selection of research respondents among staff of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute on the basis of their interest and willingness to fill the questionnaires.

3.5 Data collection
This research is consist of primary and secondary information. Secondary information for the research are gathered from research papers, articles published in journals and books. Primary information are collected through questionnaire form employees and lecturers of ATVI.

3.6 Instrumentation
The main tool of primary data collection is questionnaire. The questionnaire is based on the research variables, there are questions related to dependent variable and there is another part where the questions are related to independent variable.

3.6.1 Data collection procedure
Data of the research are collected from employees and lecturers of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute in Kabul. The questionnaire were distributed to the staff of ATVI in Kabul that are working in different fields at ATVI for filling and obtaining primary information of this research physically and through email.
Data Analysis Procedure
Primary data was collected and analyzed in SPSS using descriptive statistics. Frequency and percentage analysis, impact analysis or multiple regression analysis are the main analysis of this research that describe findings of the research.

3.7 Scope and Limitation
The scopes of this research are employees and lecturers of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute, the research looks at teamwork in relation to employee performance.

Due to the promise of privacy taken by people who were concerned; it was difficult for them to reveal information which would have been required on the topic. The target groups were having little interest in providing data. In some cases they were unwilling to supply the required information.

Despite these limitations, a thorough observation was done during the study, to reduce the limitations so that conclusions that were drawn would be acceptable.

Chapter 4
Analysis and Findings
Analysis and Findings
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.761 22
Value of alpha in the reliability test table is 0.761 for 22 questions in the questionnaire. The minimum standard for alpha is 0.70, whereas alpha of this research is higher the minimum.

4.2 Regression Analysis
The research study uses multiple regression analysis in order to analyze impact of independent variables on dependent variable. The multiple regression model is as under:
Y = ?+?1X1+?2X2+?3X3+ ?4X4+?……….. (1) Where Y is Employee Retention (dependent variable) ? is constant X is other factors affecting Performance ? is the regression coefficient which may be positively or negatively affecting dependent and independent variables.

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .454a .206 .194 3.74759
a. Predictors: (Constant), Teamwork
The coefficient of determination R2 = 0.206 which show that 20.6 % of variation in employee performance is due to teamwork in organization.

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 247.339 1 247.339 17.611 .000b
Residual 955.020 68 14.044 Total 1202.359 69 a. Dependent Variable: Performance
b. Predictors: (Constant), Teamwork
The F value is 17.611 and is significant because the significance level is = .000 which is less than P ? 0.05. This implies that over all regression model is statistically significant, valid and fit. The valid regression model implies that all independent variables are explaining that there is a positive and significant relationship with dependent variable.

Coefficients
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 10.820 2.140 5.055 .000
Teamwork .545 .130 .454 4.197 .000
Dependent Variable: Performance
Coefficients table talks about the influence of independent variable on the dependent variable, the influence can be both positive and negative. If the B value is positive it shows that the relationship of team work and employee performance is positive or increase in team work leads the employee performance in a positive way, but if the value of B was negative then it means increase in team work would have negative effect and decrease the performance of employees.

In this research, the independent variables has its importance and impact on dependent variable. As in the table, the B value of team work is 0.545 which means 100 percent increase in team work will increase the employee performance by 54.5 percent and vice versa and the Significance value of variable is less than 0.000 which is less than the standard 0.05.

Gender
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Male 110 78.6 78.6 78.6
Female 30 21.4 21.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Research sample size is 140 respondents, the respondents are the management employees and lecturers of Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute. From 140 respondents 110 of them are male and 30 of them are female.

I am
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Lecturer 84 60.0 60.0 60.0
Management Employee 56 40.0 40.0 100
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
The research respondents are consist of 84 lecturers and 56 management employees of ATVI located in Kabul.

Trust among team member is important in teamwork
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 38 27.1 27.1 27.1
Agree 72 51.4 51.4 78.6
Neutral 16 11.4 11.4 90.0
Disagree 10 7.1 7.1 97.1
Strongly Disagree 4 2.9 2.9 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Trust among team member is important in teamwork, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 27.1% strongly agree, 51.4% agree, 11.4% neutral, 7.1% disagree and 2.9% strongly agree.

Team members should take equal participation in the assigned tasks
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 32 22.9 22.9 22.9
Agree 48 34.3 34.3 57.1
Neutral 60 42.9 42.9 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Team members should take equal participation in the assigned tasks, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 22.9% strongly agree, 34.3% agree, and 42.9% neutral.

Team members should respect each other
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 112 80.0 80.0 80.0
Agree 28 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interoperation:
Team members should respect each other, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 80% strongly agree and other 20% agree.

Effective teams are consist of members who are focusing on the assigned tasks
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 74 52.9 52.9 52.9
Agree 66 47.1 47.1 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretations:
Effective teams are consist of members who are focusing on the assigned tasks, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 52.9% strongly agree and 47.1% agree.

The members of effective teams assist each other in progress of the tasks
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 104 74.3 74.3 74.3
Agree 36 25.7 25.7 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
The members of effective teams assist each other in progress of the tasks, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 74.3% strongly agree and 25.7% agree.

The members of effective teams help each other in overcoming the obstacles they face
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 46 32.9 32.9 32.9
Agree 70 50.0 50.0 82.9
Neutral 14 10.0 10.0 92.9
Disagree 8 5.7 5.7 98.6
Strongly Disagree 2 1.4 1.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
The members of effective teams help each other in overcoming the obstacles they face, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 32.9% strongly agree, 50% agree, 11.4% neutral, 7.1% disagree and 2.9% strongly agree.

Vision and mission of team are important to be shared and discussed with all team members
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 36 25.7 25.7 25.7
Agree 80 57.1 57.1 82.9
Neutral 14 10.0 10.0 92.9
Disagree 8 5.7 5.7 98.6
Strongly Disagree 2 1.4 1.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Vision and mission of team are important to be shared and discussed with all team members, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 25.7% strongly agree, 57.1% agree, 10% neutral, 5.7% disagree and 1.4% strongly agree.

Effective teams are consist of diversity in talents and personalities of individuals
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 52 37.1 37.1 37.1
Agree 76 54.3 54.3 91.4
Neutral 10 7.1 7.1 98.6
Disagree 2 1.4 1.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Effective teams are consist of diversity in talents and personalities of individuals, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 37.1% strongly agree, 54.3% agree, 7.1% neutral, and 1.4% disagree.

Communication in effective teams are open and clear
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 52 37.1 37.1 37.1
Agree 56 40.0 40.0 77.1
Neutral 18 12.9 12.9 90.0
Disagree 8 5.7 5.7 95.7
Strongly Disagree 6 4.3 4.3 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Communication in effective teams are open and clear, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 37.1% strongly agree, 40% agree, 12.9% neutral, 5.7% disagree and 4.3% strongly agree.

The member of effective teams share their knowledge, experience and learning with other team members
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 16 11.4 11.4 11.4
Agree 62 44.3 44.3 55.7
Neutral 32 22.9 22.9 78.6
Disagree 20 14.3 14.3 92.9
Strongly Disagree 10 7.1 7.1 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
The member of effective teams share their knowledge, experience and learning with other team members, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 11.4% strongly agree, 44.3% agree, 22.9% neutral, 14.3% disagree and 7.1% strongly agree.

By team work employees can enhance their skills, knowledge and performance
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 12 8.6 8.6 8.6
Agree 64 45.7 45.7 54.3
Neutral 38 27.1 27.1 81.4
Disagree 22 15.7 15.7 97.1
Strongly Disagree 4 2.9 2.9 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
By team work employees can enhance their skills, knowledge and performance, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 8.6% strongly agree, 45.7% agree, 27.1% neutral, 15.7% disagree and 2.9% strongly agree.

Performance of employees can increase by teamwork
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 18 12.9 12.9 12.9
Agree 82 58.6 58.6 71.4
Neutral 18 12.9 12.9 84.3
Disagree 16 11.4 11.4 95.7
Strongly Disagree 6 4.3 4.3 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Performance of employees can increase by teamwork, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 12.9% strongly agree, 58.6% agree, 12.9% neutral, 11.4% disagree and 4.3% strongly agree.

All team members have equal opportunities for participation in debates and develop their confidence and skills
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 10 7.1 7.1 7.1
Agree 74 52.9 52.9 60.0
Neutral 40 28.6 28.6 88.6
Disagree 14 10.0 10.0 98.6
Strongly Disagree 2 1.4 1.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
All team members have equal opportunities for participation in debates and develop their confidence and skills, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 7.1% strongly agree, 52.9% agree, 28.6% neutral, 10% disagree and 1.4% strongly agree.

Work burden and pressure are distributed among team members
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 18 12.9 12.9 12.9
Agree 82 58.6 58.6 71.4
Neutral 18 12.9 12.9 84.3
Disagree 20 14.3 14.3 98.6
Strongly Disagree 2 1.4 1.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Work burden and pressure are distributed among team members, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 12.9% strongly agree, 58.6% agree, 12.9% neutral, 14.3% disagree and 1.4% strongly agree.

Teamwork involve all of the members in the progress of tasks
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 24 17.1 17.1 17.1
Agree 66 47.1 47.1 64.3
Neutral 26 18.6 18.6 82.9
Disagree 18 12.9 12.9 95.7
Strongly Disagree 6 4.3 4.3 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Teamwork involve all of the members in the progress of tasks, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 17.1% strongly agree, 47.1% agree, 18.6% neutral, 12.9% disagree and 4.3% strongly agree.

Tasks are performed in shorter time by teamwork
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 40 28.6 28.6 28.6
Agree 80 57.1 57.1 85.7
Neutral 10 7.1 7.1 92.9
Disagree 10 7.1 7.1 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Tasks are performed in shorter time by teamwork, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 28.6% strongly agree, 57.1% agree, 7.1% neutral, and 7.1% disagree.

Teamwork play vital role in enhancing employee performance
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 52 37.1 37.1 37.1
Agree 72 51.4 51.4 88.6
Neutral 16 11.4 11.4 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Teamwork play vital role in enhancing employee performance, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 37.1% strongly agree, 51.4% agree, and 11.4% neutral.

Teamwork ensures achieving organizational goals
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 50 35.7 35.7 35.7
Agree 70 50.0 50.0 85.7
Neutral 20 14.3 14.3 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Teamwork ensures achieving organizational goals, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 35.7% strongly agree, 50% agree, and 14.3% neutral.

Teamwork ensures the effective usage of resources
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 42 30.0 30.0 30.0
Agree 84 60.0 60.0 90.0
Neutral 8 5.7 5.7 95.7
Disagree 6 4.3 4.3 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Teamwork ensures the effective usage of resources, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 30% strongly agree, 60% agree, 5.7% neutral, and 4.3% disagree.

Teamwork encourage employee to learn new things
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly Agree 50 35.7 35.7 35.7
Agree 76 54.3 54.3 90.0
Neutral 14 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 140 100.0 100.0 Interpretation:
Teamwork encourage employee to learn new things, the responses of AVTI employees and teachers are; 35.7% strongly agree, 54.3% agree, and 10% neutral.

Chapter 5
Conclusion
This research is conducted to see the impact of team work on employee performance at Afghanistan Technical and Vocational Institute. The research population was the management employees and lecturers of ATVI. Secondary data for literature review was collected from different books, previously done research article on the topic and the published researches on the internet. The primary data for the research was collected from management employees and lecturers of ATVI through a group wise designed questionnaire. The questionnaire have separate parts for dependent and independent variables and there is demographic questions as well.

The collected primary data was further analyzed in SPSS. Major analysis for this research is regression analysis and secondary analysis is frequency analysis. From the findings of the research the study has come to the following conclusion.

In relation to the effect of team work on employee performance at ATVI, the research recognized that there is a positive and significant relationship between employee performance and team work, the team work should not be ignored and the management of ATVI should consider to maintain a balanced and good team work across ATVI.

The findings also shows, delegation of job should be equally allocated to staff across the organization to assist employees and lecturers to bring their diverse way of performing tasks and culture into team. Appreciation and acceptance of ideas and culture of other team members is highly recommended and fair treatment of all employees is another factor that should be considered inside a team. Employee contribution is another factor of that leads a team to be more successful.

Regarding the team work and job description, the findings of the research shows that satisfactory and fair job description are not distributed well among team members. One team member is job description is as heavy as he or she is overloaded but in contrast another team member work load is too low that he or she has more spare time during official timings of the organization. This was done through the staff appraisals and supervision of the different tasks given to the employees.

Related to job satisfaction of team members and other employees and lecturers of ATVI the findings show, only a small number of top level managers are struggling to design and create teams or they use the strategies to promote and achieve the best result of team work. They provide flexible working condition and environment to their subordinates.

A range of reasons were established as to why organizations form teams: the study established that, organizational objectives, building organizational reputation, producing greater level of performance, increasing employees’ organizational commitment and to offer quality services to customers were the major reasons for the formation of teams in organizations.

Recommendations
Organizations should support the team work and build policies for the enhancement and practice of team work. Through team work productivity increases in a company.

Organizations should develop an internal atmosphere where employees feel their selves well satisfied form the job and become cooperative and friendly with each other during working hours.

The team work makes the employee more active, all of team members try to take active part in the works and activities. Through team work employees try to use their full capacity in performing the jobs.

Managerial Implication
Based on findings and the research, some of the beneficial and practical suggestions are for the managers and team leaders of ATVI. Team leaders should be aware of any activity inside a team, roles and actions of all team members should be monitored for the purpose of preventing conflict between team members. Conflict in teams and groups is something unavoidable, the role of manager or team leader is to find the source of conflict and order the team members to follow what is said. These acts can make a positive change in formation of teams and help teams in performing better.

Stress of team members another main issue. Some of the team members would have stress, the team leader should observe and discuss with that team member, if required guide the team member on solution of his or her stress. Sometimes team member’s qualification and expertise will not be the same and it emerges stress. The team member with higher expertly and knowledge should help other team members to enhance team performance and productivity.

5.4 Recommendations for Future Research
Each team has a team leader, the team leader has major effect on the performance of a team. A future research is needed to find the impact of team leader on performance of team.

Relationship among team members is another key to success and failure of a team. A research could be conducted on the title “impact of leader and subordinate relationship on the achievement of team goal”.

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Questionnaire of the Study
I am
Male
Female
I am
Lecturer
Management employee
Questions regarding independent variable (Team Work)
SA= Strongly AgreeA= AgreeN= NeutralDA= DisagreeSDA= Strongly Disagree
Trust among team member is important in teamwork
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Team members should take equal participation in the assigned tasks
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Team members should respect each other
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Effective teams are consist of members who are focusing on the assigned tasks
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
The members of effective teams assist each other in progress of the tasks
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
The members of effective teams help each other in overcoming the obstacles they face
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Vision and mission of team are important to be shared and discussed with all team members
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Effective teams are consist of diversity in talents and personalities of individuals
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Communication in effective teams are open and clear
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
The member of effective teams share their knowledge, experience and learning with other team members
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork and Employee performance
By team work employees can enhance their skills, knowledge and performance
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Performance of employees can increase by teamwork
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
All team members have equal opportunities for participation in debates and develop their confidence and skills
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Work burden and pressure are distributed among team members
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork involve all of the members in the progress of tasks
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Tasks are performed in shorter time by teamwork
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork play vital role in enhancing employee performance
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork ensures achieving organizational goals
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork ensures the effective usage of resources
SA
A
N
DA
SDA
Teamwork encourage employee to learn new things
SA
A
N
DA
SDA

x

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