I. categories: discovery strategies and consolidation strategies.


        Vocabulary has a crucialrole in language learning process. Thus, it can also be said that it is thepillar of the language learning process. It is known that, in the languagelearning process, learners individually use and prefer different materials andways according to their cognitive skills or their interests. Scarcella & Oxford(1992) defines learning strategies as “specific actions, behaviours, steps, ortechniques– such as seeking out conversation partners, or giving oneselfencouragement to tackle a difficult language task — used by students toenhance their own learning (as cited in Oxford, 2003, p. 2). In addition,vocabulary acquisition is one of the fields in which language learners benefitfrom learning strategies constantly. As a result, vocabulary acquisition hasbecome many research studies’ focal point since 1970. In these researchstudies, various learning strategies, which help the learner improve his/herlearning, have been suggested.

Moreover, some researchers created acategorization framework to clarify these learning strategies for vocabulary(Schmitt & McCarthy, 1997). There are three remarkable categorizationframeworks. These belong to O’Malley (1985), Oxford (1990), and Schmitt (1997)respectively. In the first taxonomy, O’Malley, Chamot, Manzanares, Kupper andRusso (1985) divided language learning strategies into three main categorieswith their subcategories: metacognitivestrategies (selective attention, self-management, etc.), cognitive strategies(repetition, note-taking, etc.), and social mediation (cooperation) (pp. 33-34).

The secondtaxonomy, which was suggested by Oxford (1990), consists of six maincategories: cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, memory strategies,compensatory strategies, affective strategies, and social strategies (as citedin Oxford, 2003). In 1997, Schmitt suggested a new categorization system, whichis also our last taxonomy, after realizing Oxford’s classification is suitablebut inadequate in categorizing vocabulary-specific strategies in many sense.This last taxonomy includes two main categories: discovery strategies andconsolidation strategies. They are also separated into six main subcategoriesin themselves: determination strategies, social strategies, memory strategies,social strategies, cognitive strategies, and metacognitive strategies (pp.



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