I. the practices such as Extreme Programming




The article “Get Ready for Agile Methods, Care”
by Boehm and ”SCRUM development Process” by Schwaber gives an overview on the
application of agile Development alongside the old plan driven-approach. Boehm
(2002) highlights an on-going debate by software developers that describes a
revitalized approach to development which will incorporate only the essentials.  Boehm (2002) also brings into a discussion on
the reactions of the software developers who still favor plan-driven methods to
agile methods. The various agile and plan-driven approaches were placed along a
spectrum of increasing emphasis based on their plans. The plans included the
documented process procedures which involved tasks and milestones plans and
their product development strategies which involved design architectural plans.

Based on this, the agile method emphasized on a fair planning. More emphasis
was on the agile planning procedure as compared to the resulting documentation,
hence the methods appeared less plan oriented than they really are. Another
encouraging trend in relations of the agile methodology includes the
application of XP. Plan-driven methods, on the other hand, emphasize their
focus on the milestone and their overall content. The article discussed a
comparison of Agile and the plan-driven approaches by focusing on several key
areas. The old-plan driven approach includes waterfall approach, incremental
and prototyping model.  The article
majored on the following are a key area in the comparison of the following models.

This synopsis is of the two articles by different authors, the articles explore
an in-depth case study of agile and scrum development methods.


Agile software development is used to
describe a group of software development methodologies that employs iterative
development, in which the solutions and requirements evolve via the
collaboration between independent cross-functional teams. Agile methods work in
a customary manner by promoting project management processes that encourage
regular inspection and adaptation.  The
agile software development methods support a wide range of software
development. Some of the methodologies
focus on the practices such as Extreme Programming ( XP), Pragmatic,
programming, agile modeling while some of the practices shift their focus on
the managerial task in relations to flow of work, for example, SCRUM and Kanban. Some of the agile software development frameworks,
Adaptive software development, agile modeling, dynamic systems developments,
Rapid systems development method, SCRUM amongst others. The primary objectives
of the agile methodology are to the satisfaction of its customers at an early
stage through the continuous delivery of their products. The disadvantage
associated with the over-focus at early stages in a large system is the risk of
a rework possibility in the event the architecture does not scale up. The agile
methodologies are highly applicable in a high change environment, Based on the
views of Highsmith and Cockburn as cited in the article, agile methods are good
for the late developments. Plan-driven method, on the other hand, can work best
when developers are able to determine the requirements in advance including via
prototyping and when the requirements are stable. In the plan-driven method,
the emphasis is on heavyweight architecture and design documentation. The
disadvantage to this is the encounter on a large amount of documentation. Based
on customers, agile methods work best in
collaboration with customers interested in the product development and when the
development team is knowledgeable about
the product development.


The term agile management is used in
reference to an iterative and incremental method of managing designs and
building activities of Engineering, information technology etc. The service
development is dependent on the principles expressed in the manifestos for Agile Software development. The agile management
also offers a simple framework that promotes communication amongst members. The
agile manifestos prefer working software to the documentation and emphasize the
simplicity. This principle can be interpreted in various ways amongst the YAGNI
precept which works when the future requirements are unpredictable. This
practice creates problems with customers who value their priorities.


Agile methodologies are replacing the waterfall model which is one
of the old methodologies. The waterfall methodology is a sequential model in
which the software development is segregated into a sequential predefined phases,
which are distinct from the agile development which follows a linear sequential
approach while providing flexibilities for changes in the project requirements.

The second difference is in the portioning of their phases, in a waterfall, the process
is divided in phase whereas in agile they are divided into a different sprint. In the waterfall methodology, an emphasis is on documentation as
well as the source code which is different from the agile methodologies which
see the documentation practice as a risk in the cause of the project work.

Boehm (2002) states that the agile software manifesto values working software
as compared to the documentation. This approach works fine in instances where
the future is predictable, on the other hand, the plan-driven methods, I.e. Waterfall
which relies on heavy documentation will likely encounter
difficulty in insurmountable work problems in keeping up with the
changing requirements.


Prototyping development is based on
currently known requirement. It is mostly applied in the event the client has
little knowledge of the project
requirements. It is applied by the development team when they want to add end-user interaction to the project. The
prototype development methodology is important in the designing of computer
interface system.  The main objective of
the prototyping model is to enable users of the software to evaluate the developer’s
proposal of the product by eventually
trying them out and evaluating the design based on the description.  The agile methodology differs from the
prototyping model in reference to customer involvement during the project work
i.e. the agile method emphasizes on the user’s
involvement with the development team during the project work (Boehm, 2007).

This gives the development team to change the development even at a later
phase. In prototyping the users don’t interact with the developers, instead, they are given access to the limited
model of the system to demonstrate the system
to the users and those participating.



The incremental model of software
development methodology employs the testing, implementing and designing the
software in an incremental fashion until the product is complete. It involves
both the development and maintenance. The comparison of the agile methodology
to the incremental model was based on the portioning of work. The latter has
work been divided into milestones within a longer period whereas agile
partitions its work into smaller sprints. In incremental methodology, there is
a detailed planning, design and risk elimination up-front.in agile methodology,
the focus is on the visual prototyping and collaboration, the project is
controlled through feedback.


Scrum is a subset of Agile; it is a
framework for agile development in the lightweight processes. Scrum is the most
applicable subset of Agile. Scrum process can be differentiated from agile processes
based on the concepts and practices. Scrum is used in the management of complex
software and product development through the application of iterative and
incremental practices.Schwaber (1997) through his article ” SCRUM Development Process”
introduces, SCRUM, a development process that treats major portions of the
system as a controlled box. The paper applies concepts from industrial
processes control which are applied to the field of system development. The article
gives into account the various SCRUM approach applicable in the treatment of
development processes in question. According to Schwaber (1997), Scrum
methodology is based on both the defined and black box process management. This
article describes Scrum as an enhancement of the iterative and incremental
approach to delivering object oriented-software- This is in reference to an
initially documented report by pitman which was later expanded by Booch. In
definition, the article describes Scrum as an enhancement and maintenance methodology applied to an existing
system or production prototype.

The article highlights the various
software companies that have employed SCRUM approach in the development of
their software, in order to realize the benefits from the objected oriented
tools. The first application of the SCRUM
approach in the development of software was first observed by Nonaka and
Takeuchi at canon Honda etc. The SCRUM approach has also been applied in the
development of software in the C++ development. The recent application of SCRUM
approach was its application by Sutherland to Smalltalk development. The
article highlights the various features of the Scrum methodologies (as cited by
Schwaber, 1997) as listed below

print phase of the Scrum methodology is an empirical process. Most of the
process within the phase can neither be identified nor denied. It can be
treated a black box which requires external control. Other controls i.e. risk management is put on the iteration within the phase to
prevent chaos in the event of maximizing flexibility

project is always open unless it is the closing phase. The deliverable can be
varied at any moment during the planning and the sprint phase of the project.

sprint of the Scrum methodologies exhibits
flexibility and nonlinearity nature. 
Sprint is used to build the final
product in this methodology

The first and
final phase-planning and closure-are composed of defined processes in which all
processes, input, and outputs are
defined.  It exhibits a linear flow with
some iteration in the planning phase.

The article emphasizes the standard
criteria for measuring SCRUM projects. Schwaber (1997) gives an overview of the use of the Standard function in estimating the project. The SCRUM project as
mentioned in the article poses both
acceleration and velocity.

The application of SCRUM approach to
software development is accompanied by various advantages as highlighted in
Schwaber (1997). The advantages of Scrum in comparison to the traditional
development methodologies as mentioned in the articles are its flexibility
nature. It has control mechanisms used in the planning of product release. It
also allows developers to manage variables as the project progresses. This
allows organizations to change projects and deliverables at any point. SCRUM
methodology also gives the developers a chance to devise applicable solutions
throughout the projects





Boehm, B. (2002).Get Ready for Agile
Methods, with Care.IEEE Computer, volume 35, issue

1, pages 64 – 69

Schwaber, K. (1997). SCRUM Development





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