I will apply the differentiated learning approach withmajor focus on the task, outcome and dialogue in all the lessons. I willachieve that, using the social constructivist theories precisely Vygotsky’sZone of Proximal Development and Bruner’s scaffolding theory.Rationale for my lesson sequence:Differentiation can be simply explained as carrying outinstructional decision in class using different learning choices oralternatives to address the needs of students taking into consideration theirlevel of readiness, interests and preferences. Although Bearne, Taylor andFrances (1996) argued that there were no specific guidelines fordifferentiation even in the National Curriculum, Tomlinson and Moon (2013) howeverprovided five elements that are paramount in achieving a well differentiatedclassroom. These are environments that supports learning, quality curriculum, assessmentthat informs teaching and learning, instruction that responds to studentvariance and lastly classroom leadership and management (ibid, 2013). Theseelement will help me in achieving differentiation in all my lessons.There are different methods of Differentiation in theclassroom but for the purpose of my lessons I will use the task, dialogue andoutcome approach while working with the Social constructivism theories ofVygotsky and Bruner.
Vygotsky (1978) proposed the theory of zone of proximaldevelopment often known as ZPD. The theory is primarily based on a moreknowledgeable person which can be a teacher, peer or another adult guiding anindividual to achieve an activity which is ordinarily beyond the competence ofthat individual. He believed that when an individual is in the ZPD for aparticular task, given appropriate guidance will boost the individual toachieve the task (McLeod, S.A, 2012). Although Vygotsky never used the termscaffolding, it has become synonymous with ZPD (ibid, 2012).
Wood, Bruner and Ross (1976) introduced scaffolding ashelping a child to carry out an activity which he will not be able to do ifunassisted. Once the child masters the task, the scaffolding will be removedand the child will then be able to carry out the task without assistance(McLeod, S.A, 2012).Differentiation poses that an alternative whichseparates the children’s ability must be provided.
This can be done either bygiving different worksheets, exercises and task for pupils of differentabilities (BBC active undated). This separation affords the privilege to assistor support the children which is primarily scaffolding. Dillon and Maguire (2011) posits that the sociallearning could be introduced by the teacher through peer learning, modelling,explaining, collaborating and scaffolding learning as this will offer importantprocesses of giving differentiated support; as such I will use this instrumentin my lessons. Coffey (2011, cited in Dillon and Maguire, 2011) is of theopinion that the range of teaching strategies or approach to meet the needs ofthe pupils could involve differentiation by task or outcome and I believe whendialogue is included, it gives a constructive outcome.