IntroductionAccordingto the National Institute of Mental Health (2016), in daily lives, sadness andanxiety are things that people all suffer from time to time, but these emotionsoften pass as time flies and are reffered to as normal reactions to challengingtimes in life. However, when people are diagnosed with Depressive Disorder (DD),it is hard for them to overcome the blue mood or continual feelings of sadnessand worthlessness, as well as a lack of keenness in formerly enjoyable pastimesand activities. (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015). DepressiveDisorder (DD) is a type of mental health problem that leads to the alterationin emotions, thoughts, behavior as well as physical health. (Fedaku, Shibeshi,Engidawork, 2017, p.
1). This disease isvery common and serious with its power to steal a person’s ability to takeinterest in life and perform even the simplest daily chores. (Fedaku, Shibeshi,Engidawork, 2017, p.1). For a long time, this disorder has not received wideregconition and acknowledgement. Fortunately, scientists are paying attentionto tackling the chronic disease nowadays as they have made great progress infinding treatments for this illness.
This research paper is aimed at providingmore knowledge to people about DD, including its symptoms, causes, effects andtreatments for DD patients.II. Discussionof findings1. Whatare the signs of Depressive DisorderDepressionis a mood disorder which results in dreadful symptoms that may have a stronginfluence on the way you feel, behave, think and perform everyday’s tasks,namely sleeping, working and eating (National Institute of Mental Health,2016). Depression often begins at the outset of adulthood, with a highfrequency of reoccurences (Cesar, J., Chavoushi, F.
, 2013, p.7). People who areundergoing those signs and symptoms for about fortnight may suffer fromdepression. First of all, they are likely to experience the seveve feeling of sadnessor grief (Bhowmik et al.
2012). Usually, sadness is something we overcomeeasily with the passage of time; however, Depressive Disorder patients willsuffer from persistent sadness, anxiousness and “empty mood” (NationalInstitute of Mental Health, 2016). Moreover,one of the most dominant symptoms of DD is the loss of keenness and interest inpastimes and recreational activities (National Institute of Mental Health,2015). It seems like people with Depressive Disorder have no pressure orhappiness in their lives, nothing can cheer them up even the things they oncehad feelings for in the past (Berry J., 2016). Besides,DD patients usually have negative thinking about themselves, their currentcircumstances and their prospects in the future (The Irish Association ofSuiciology, 2016).
They often feel like they have no value or they will not besuccessful at anything, they are even unable to see the positive characteristicsin themselves (Berry J., 2016). Lastbut not least, people with DD have trouble concentrating (National Institute ofMental Health, 2015). It is only a faintpossibility that DD patients can focus or concentrate well on any type ofdecision-making tasks or even daily activities such as reading, listening andwatching (Berry J., 2016). Noteveryone experiences the same symptoms. Those signs above are only the mostcommon ones when people suffer from Depressive Disorder (National Istitute ofHealth, 2015). Along with those aforementioned signs and symptoms, many othersmay occur to people coming down with this illness, for instance, fatigue, exhaustion,or even the constant thought of suicide (National Institute of Health, 2016).
2. Whatare the causes of Depressive DisorderThereare various causes that lead to depression. Several people with DepressiveDisorder, notably Bipolar Depression and Major Depressive Disorder, seem tohave a biological susceptibility that can be inherited in families.
(Bhowmik et al. 2012). Family history ofdepression is one of the causes of Depressive Disorder. Perris et al. (1982)put forward a theory that patients who have a family history record clear ofdepression would less likely to be affected genetically (Monroe, Slavich,Gotlib, 2013).
However, there is still no solid evidence on whether peopleinherited a vulnerability to these diseases or it is the environment andpersonal history are the culprits (Bhowmik et al. 2012). Further research isneeded.Moreover,major life events can also result in depression. Stressful life events such as thedeath of loved ones, divorce, job los, especially childhood emotional abuse,have been persistently connected with a rise in depression symptoms (Mazure,1998, as cited in Shapero et al. 2014). Individuals who have a history ofemotional abuse may face greater risk of depression when they encounterstressful life events.
In fact, emotional abuse has been correlated withnegative feelings of humilation, self-pity, anger, self-worthlessness; thus,those who suffer from early emotional abuse have negative conception aboutthemselves in adulthood (Shapero et al. 2014).Obviously,there is a relation between depression and personality traits. According toseveral studies, neuroticism (the usual feeling of worry and nervous) isperhaps in the biggest conjunction with depression (Junni, 2017). For example,in the case of older Korean immigrants, they had to go through hardships due topolitical and economical difficulties in South Korea back then, and theynurtured American dream with the hope of achieving better lives. However, theattempts to adjust to the language and cultural differences have put them instressful situations, leading to neuroticism and ultimately depression as theyoften feel isolated, hopeless and stress (Bum et al. 2016).
3. Howdoes Depressive Disorder influence peopleDepressioninfluences people in many distinctive ways. DD patients may experience physicalimpacts such as weight loss or overweight, sleep deprivation, aches, severepains and so on. However, depression can also lead to sophisticated cognitivealterations (Harvard Medical School, 2017). The ability to think, makedecisions and memorize things is likely to be impaired. Your cognitiveadjustability and executive functioning can also be lowered (Cartreine, 2016). Inaddition, suicide may be the common association with mental illness, specificallywith Depressive Disorder (Diego De Leo & Lay San Too, 2014). Depression is one of the significant causesleading to suicide.
Over the lifetime, people with untreated depression aremore vulnerable to the risk of suicide, at round 20% (Gotlib and Hammen, 2002,as cited in Romero, A.J et al. 2014). Approximate ly 2/3 of people who endtheir lives are considered to be depressed at the moment of their deaths(American Assiociation of Suicidology, 2012, as cited in Romero, A.J et al.
2014). A large number of depressive episodes have shown a correlation with thenumber of suicide efforts. Furthermore, suicide attempts appear in thebeginning of depression course, following with a high possibility ofreattempting right after the first effort (Crona, L., Mossberg, A., Bradvik,L., 2013).
4. Whatare the treatments for Depressive DisorderDepressionis a treatable disorder with reliable diagnostic methods (Marcus et al, 2012). Thetreatments can bring a good opportunity for DD people to overcome the illnessgradually. The sooner treatment starts, the more efficient it becomes (NationalInstitute of Health, 2015).Firstly,one of the most common treatments is talking to the doctor or psychologicaladvisors. According to the National Institute of Health (2015), how effectivelyyou and your doctor communicate with each other is one of the most significantparts of receiving better health care. Heaversedge (2014) claimed that bytalking to your advisor, you can ask any questions related to your feelings,thoughts and behavior, which may help you to gain more knowledge about what youare experiencing and what support is there to help you through this. The authoralso remarked that doctor will give you useful advice on what you can do tochange your habits and lifestyle in order to make an improvement in your mentalhealth.
Additionally,using antidepressant medications is another method for treating depression. Antidepressantmedications can be very useful, especially for people with modest-severedepression (Marcus et al. 2012). They may assist your brain by utilisingcertain chemical substances that can control mood and stress.
There are variouskinds of antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRI), tricyclic antidepressants (TCA),…(National Institute of MentalHealth,2015). Although antidepressants may have side effects, they tend to fadeaway over time. Reporting any side effects that you are suffering from to yourdoctor and advisor, or at least you have to remember to consult with yourhealth care supplier before stop talking antidepressants (National Institute ofMental Health, 2016).
Lastbut not least, you can get through depression yourself. In other words,self-help is of great importance to aid people with depression (Marcus et al.2012).
DD patients can try to be dynamic by doing exercises regularly,according to Cleare et al. 2015, physical activities and exercises areconsidered as possible treatments for Depressive Disorder (Schuch et al. 2016).For example, people who do aerobic exercises 3 times a week may see a greatdecline in depressive symptoms and signs (Blumentah et al., 2012, p.7), or tryto engage in several activities they once felt pleasurable. Besides, spendingtime with someone you love and confide in can be a good way to treatdepression, do not separate yourself and let your loved-ones help you.
Alwaysbear in mind that you are not alone (National Institute of Mental Health,2015).