Hydroelectric power is a kind of renewableenergy and have a very old history.
The world first hydroelectric power plant hasbeen exist and began operated at September 30, 1882 on the fox river inAppleton, Wisconsin. The electricity that generate in the world got about 20%came from Hydroelectric power and it hold the largest share of worldwideelectric production. Hydroelectric power is basically convert the naturalforces such as flowing water in river or waterfall into electricity. It isclean and sustainable for future power usage. Hydroelectric power plant usuallybuild on dam due to dam can store much of water and can reconstruct theenvironment of the downstream. Besides, the dam can control the flow rate ofwater and prevent flood at the downstream of dam. According to the instituteenergy research, the renewable energy has taken over about 9.9% of all energyconsumed in the United State of America in 2015.
But in this 9.9% or renewableenergy, hydroelectric power has taken over about 25% which in the biggest andmost popular renewable energy source in United State of America in 2015. Thereason that cause hydroelectric power become one of the popular renewable powersource is that the process that convert natural forces into electricity doesn’tneed any sources which will cause pollution to the environment such as oil,coal and natural gas. Which means that, hydroelectric power plant does notcreate any pollution components such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen dioxide tothe environment. This may not seem like a significant change, but the lesserthe pollution components produce can be correspond to enormous changes to theenvironment. Next, the conventional hydroelectric technology about 90% which ishighly efficiency. According to the US Department of energy, thehydroelectric power is the fourth cheap energy sources.
Although the cost tobuild a hydroelectric power plant is high but it has a low operating cost andlong lasting. The hydroelectric power plant can be operated automatically in conditionwithout people. In order to build a hydroelectric power plant, the height ofwater in the dam has decided how much the potential power to generateelectricity. The higher the dam build, the more potential energy in water. Thehigher position of water enables the water moved downward effortlessly.
In thestructure of a hydroelectric power plant, the water flow through the gate andflow through the penstock which is control by the gates. The water flow throughthe penstock will control the total amount of electricity generated in thehydroelectric power plant. The potential and kinetics of water will beconverted into rotational motion when the water push the blades of the turbine.When the shaft is rotate, the coil inside the generator will be rotate too andproduce the electricity. It is because the rotation of the shaft inside thegenerator that produces magnetic field which is converted into electricity byelectromagnetic field induction. According standard 4247-1,generally can be defined as two main point which are additional provision relatingto drainage and precaution for underground power station and provision to meetemergency condition for drainage.
In the standard 5496, some changes are addedin standard 5496 which are the width of each pipe are recommended as 1000mm anddepth of Kaplan & Francis turbine recommended has been increased. Inconclusion, although many hydroelectric power plant are construct in worldwide butmany of them are small and not so efficiency compare with big hydroelectricpower plant. New big hydroelectric power plant are necessary to be construct inworldwide to replace the un-renewable energy.