Human anatomy studiesthe “structure of body parts and their relationships to one another” (Marieband Hoehn, 2007, p.2-3). Similarly, Human physiology “concerns the functions ofthe body, how the body parts work and carry out their life sustainingactivities” (ibid.
p.2). In health andsocial care, the physiological principles are to provide a holistic overview ofthe human body, structure and functioning as appropriation for healthcare professionals. Thisessay will seek to identify all the ten anatomical features of the biologicalsystems; thus a brief explanation of seven anatomical features and its functions,including a detailed explanation of three biological systems (the gastrointestinalsystem, the respiratory system and circulatory system). Moreover, this essaywill also explore the importance of routine data collection in care planning aswell as, the environmental and physical factors which hinder the functional performanceof the body, and the impact it has on care delivered to service users in healthand social care settings based on the given case study. 1.1 Thehuman body has ten biological systems that carry out specific functions, whichare beneficial for our everyday living. The anatomical features of the humanbiological systems are as follows: · Theimmune system: It defends the body against pathogenic micro-organisms andgerms that are exposed to the human body everyday.
The body’s defensivemechanism is achieved through a series of steps called the immune responsewhich attacks micro-organisms and substances likely to invade the body’s systemto cause illnesses. The immune system is also composed of specialised cells, varioustissues, organs and proteins that work together to protect the body. One of themain cells involved in the body’s defensive activity is the white blood cells,also known as leukocytes. These are produced in many parts of the body. The organsand tissues involved in the immune system are called lymphoid organs which are;spleen, bone marrow, thymus, appendix, lymph nodes, tonsils and the Peyer’spatches found throughout the small intestinal duct. Primarily, leukocytes comein two types; phagocytes and lymphocytes. The phagocytic cells chew harmfulmicro-organisms whilst the lymphatic cells allow the body recognise previousinfectious micro-organism and help the body to destroy them.
Lymphocytes alsoconsists of two types of cells; B- cells and T-cells. B-cells produce antibodiesto attack foreign antigens that causes harm to the body. T-cells, however, hastwo main functions; to recognise and destroy malignant cells, and to orchestratean immune response which play a vital role in immunity. · The renalsystem: Includes the kidneys, the ureters, the urethra and the bladder. Itis designed to produce, store and eliminate excess waste product excreted bythe kidneys, called urea.