However, construction industryhas a tremendous growth also development, and now it is essential for employersand employees to be aware of health and safety issues. Construction should bestimulated to benchmarks its safety practices and performances against otherindustries. And better opportunity should be taken to learn from failures, withimplementation of accident investigation procedures thus, construction industryis working very hard to improve its health and safety record.Construction is globally oneof the most hazardous industries, therefore the importance of health and safetyin companies specially on construction is recognized because the encouragementsfor organsations to strive for high health and safety standards which are legaland economic.
Conclusion However, with the new requirements the accidents reduce butafter that it become apparent that accidents still happened, and the causes ofthese accidents were the result of technical failures. Rather of the importanceof inadequate organizational issues such as lack of adherence to standardhealth and safety rules or poor communication within the company.Construction is one of themost dangerous on health and safety criteria especially in developingcountries, but health and safety came to protect the wellbeing of employers,visitors and customers from harm which can makes good business sense.Therefore, ignoring health and safety risk prosecution, might lose staff, andcan increase costs.
And efforts have been made but the results it still notsatisfactory as construction accidents continue high within the industry. Basedon studies cases, for example Pyeroy Ltd, where a worker died because he was usinga mobile elevated work platform (MEWP) and regarding a pre-existing heartconditions. The accident could be avoided if Pyeroy planned the staff work atheight with a MEWP in certain areas and how to act in emergency situations thuscan be observe that suitable training was not provided, as well the company hasnot following the procedures of the elevated platforms. They failed Regulation4 of the Work at Height Regulations 2005. 4. The impact of Health and Safety legislationwithin construction Figure 4 – Rateof employer-reported non-fatal injury (Executive, 2017) Figure 3 – Number of fatal injuries toemployees (Executive, 2017) · Improve environmental quality.· Increase productivity andefficiency.· Improve project quality.
· Reduce claims and litigations.· Reduce construction siteaccidents. Although, health and safetytraining should be essential at all levels of an organization, such ensure thatall workers have up-to-date training to encourage a better awareness of healthand safety. Also, the integration of BIM helped to improve safety inconstruction, therefore BIM is a technical progression represented the form of3D (visuals) and 4D (scheduling) which can be used for safety purposes byconstruction companies. However, the construction was benefited through changeshealth and safety:Health and safety help theindustry become more effective on conclusion of the projects on time at sametime improve their business profile with clients.
The health and safety in constructionindustry not only ensures the wellbeing of the employers and productive butalso help to reduce the human costs of injuries. Thus 3. Benefits for construction Health andSafetyFigure 2 – The UK organization chartof projects agents, construction project phases, and the health and safety. (Martínez-Aires, et al., 2016) Although, everyone with dutiesunder CDM 2015 need to cooperate with others involved within project workingwith each other to ensure health and safety for all and should involvecommunication between them to understanding what to do and in what sequence.
A successful project requiresthe collaboration of all parties through working together the team can improvein every aspect, and the major constituent of collaborative environments is howto communication as well share data efficiently without damage. Therefore, thekey part of the success of collaboration and communication is the incorporationof BIM for a better management and share of information. Such as designers,construction managers, and contractors can use BIM to achieve tasks moreefficiently than before because with collaboration on construction it canimprove worker safety, better coordination, improve emergency situations, moretrust and respect among all parties. Formerly with the availability of the technologiesconstruction industry needs to make the most using the internet to shareinformation onsite with workers, making sure essential health and safetyinformation is communicated, which will help raise awareness of any developingrisks and hazards. 2.2 The role of collaboration andcommunication The CDM 2015 cover themanagement of health, safety and welfare of construction projects, to ensurethe risk of harm for those who are working on build is reduced. Thus, aims toimprove health and safety in industry by helping plan the work so the risks aremanaged from start to finish, so that way can have the right people to do the jobon right time with the right data about the risks. And, how they can be managed,communicate the information effectively for the right person, to consult andengage with workers about the risks.
Therefore,CDM applies entire building and construction work including demolition,refurbishment, new building, repair and maintenance. The Construction (Design andManagement) Regulations (CDM 2015) These regulations apply toemployers, employees and the self-employed, consequently workers are obliged tomake full use of any safety control measures place, and report any defects inthese facilities or processes that may result in their failure.· Gasses. · Dusts.
· veterinary medicines.· any chemicals labelled as toxic, corrosive, harmfulor irritant.Hazardous substances are any that could result inill health only asbestos, and substances below ground in mines are excluded becausethey have their own regulations, but as far as agriculture is concerned some ofthe main types include: The 2002 regulations COSHH, its proposed toprotect the health of anybody in contact with hazardous substances during at work,and the regulations placed essential measures that employers must follow. Then failureto not obey COSHH, exposing employees to risk, constitutes an offence and subjectto penalties under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
Control of SubstancesHazardous to Health (COSHH) 2002 RIDDOR, these regulations require employers, self-employedand people in charge of buildings, to report the deaths, injuries, work-relateddiseases and dangerous occurrences. And incidentscan be reported only for the responsible persons in control ofwork premises submitting reports under RIDDOR. Reporting of Injuries Diseasesand Dangerous Occurrence Regulations (RIDDOR) 2013 TheWork at Height Regulations 2005 were presented to avoid death and injury causedby falls from height to minimise risks to works. Therefore, anyone involved ona project, such as employers, facilities managers, builder owners or anyonethat controls work at height even an independent worker, in case of accident itcan be considered responsible in case of accident. Thus, the employer need tohave a legal obligation that the regulation is been used correctly, planned,supervised by competent individuals.
Therefore, the regulations state that theemployer must ensure that workers have available to the Work at Heightequipment, including Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Workers also need an appropriatetraining in the use of that equipment and should be properly supervised. However, another responsibility of theemployer is to guarantee that workers are warned to fragile surfaces with prominentwarning notices as they approach the hazard.
Thus, the guidance also recommendsthat equipment is made available, such as guardrail, to prevent an individualentering a dangerous Work at Height area. The Working at HeightRegulations 2005 Even though, written record ofhealth and safety policy should be always revised by employers, but it appliesonly to those who employ more than five.· welfare provisions for staffat work.· suitable training of staff toensure health and safety.
· safe use, handling and storageof dangerous substances. · maintenance of safe access andentrance to the workplace. · safe operation and maintenanceof the working environment, plant and systems. TheHealth and Safety at work Act 1974 (HSWA) is the main UK legislation which hasaffecting entire construction industry, therefore it came to places obligationon employers to guarantee the health, safety and welfare at work, practical to allworkers and who has contact on the buildings. Also, the Act involves: 2.1 Legislation on construction industry · Confined Spaces Regulations 1997· Noise at Work Regulations 2005· Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) regulations2002· Control of Substances Hazardous to Health(COSHH) 2002· Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous OccurrenceRegulations (RIDDOR) 2013· The Construction (Design and Management)Regulations (CDM 2015)· TheWorking at Height Regulations 2005 However,to avoid most of the accidents were implementing rigorous health and safetyprocedures and make sure those procedures are constantly maintained health andsafety standards on building sites.
Then the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974implement regulations to specific and certain area relating to constructions.Which are: Figure 1- Maininjury kind for fatal injuries. (Executive, 2017) ‘Therewere 30 fatal injuries to workers in the Construction sector in 2016/17, around30% lower than the five-year average for 2011/12-2015/16 (43).
‘ (Executive, 2017)Inthe UK, construction industry health and safety are a concern because the higheraccident rate compared to other industries. But, it is expected that a hugeindustry such as construction, with a larger number of employees, might have a largernumber of industry-related fatalities. Though, does not mean the fatalities needto be acceptable and the number of deaths relative to the number of industryemployees is totally disproportionate, such the construction industry employments5% of the UKs workers, until now the sector accounts for 10% of reported majorinjuries and a massive third fatal worker injury each year. Healthand safety set out what people involved in construction industry includingclients, architects, contractors, need to do, to protect staff and others fromharm arising from work activities.
Therefore, it helps the workers andmanagements identify hazards and control risks explained how to plan, controland monitoring during the life of a project. Health and safety need to be inall aspects of construction because the constant potential accidents andhazards. The main accidentswhich cause death or thoughtful injury on construction sites contain falls,incidents with site vehicles, failing materials and contact with overhead powerlines. 2. Health and Safety Consequently,in the UK there are a countless number of laws, directives and regulations,such as Health and Safety at Work Acts (HSWA, 1974) which affect the workplace.
According to Health and Safety Executive reports, the main causes of accidentsare falling from ladders, being struck by excavators, falling through fragileroofs and overturning vehicles. However, to ensure that health and safetyissues are planned, organized, controlled, and monitored, everyone working onsite must have the H&S responsibilities because accidents can costemployers a lot money.Thereport explained the development of health and safety within constructionindustry.
Therefore, the health and safety are relevant to all industryparticularly on construction, thus is considered the most exposed sector whenit comes to accidents. There are thousands of people that are extremelyinjured, and suffer from health problems such as dermatitis and deafness.