However, considered (Parker, 2002). The wider problems

However, critics are questioning their
increasing part in international health, despite the obvious importance of the
provided resources. An overall decline in spending for welfare programs,
education and health has occurred due to structural adjustment policies. These
policies have further been held partly responsible for contributing to the
HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa (Parker, 2002). A topic of which has been
a foremost focus of discussion in past years. Whiteford and Manderson (2000)
identified a cause for concern that the World Bank is increasingly appearing to
oppose the World Health Organisation despite it being considered as the most
dominant worldwide organisation involved in health work (Parker, 2002). In
addition to this, it is often forgotten that although a large sum of money was invested
by the World Bank to help confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic, they are still only
loans and not donations (Parker, 2002). Despite that the loans are often agreed
with fair interest rates, developing countries are already obliged to commit a
large proportion of their annual gross national products to pay of previously
agreed loans. The addition of the loans from the World Bank are now being
considered to contribute to the already increasing debt of many low-income
countries, therefore donations should be considered (Parker, 2002). The wider
problems of already existing debt levels in low income countries must be
considered and addressed by these organisations to develop a better
understanding of the economic and social growth in association to public
health. In both the North and South, a call has been made by treatment
campaigners, as they protest this is the only solution to increase public
health budgets in developing countries. By doing so, they hope this will allow
and increase the application of suitable treatment and care programs (Parker,
2002).

The World Bank and IMF introduced
‘structural adjustment’ loan conditions which were aimed to reduce inflation to
manageable levels, partially in response to debt crisis (Rowden et al., 2004). However,
as a result the overall national spending experienced a substantial cut, thus
affecting health budgets of many low-income countries. A UNICEF supported study
completed in 2004 concluded by 1987, a combination of; increase interest
payments, increase trading costs, cuts in social spending and overall global
economic recessions had resulted in basic indicators of child welfare as
education, immunisation and nutrition (Labonte & Schrecker, 2004, Rowden,
2004).

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Regardless of the identification of
these concerns, it is also important to address the progression of efforts of
response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. For example, in order to emphasise HIV/AIDS
as an urgency in the international policy agenda, in 2001 UNAIDS (the Joint
United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS) engaged the world to achieve its primary
aim of zero new HIV infections and HIV/AIDS related deaths (UNIAIDS, 2018), by organising
an innovative Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly (Parker,
2002). Despite there being improvements needed to ensure the policy is
successful in practice, the special session resulted in a Declaration of
Commitment on HIV/AIDS which marked significant improvement (Parker, 2002). In
previous years, Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations from
1997-2006, has also directed international policy debates regarding global
health and HIV/AIDS more specifically. Throughout the 9 years, the involved
role of Annan has supported advanced new funding mechanisms to financially
support the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and additionally initiated
deeper debate regarding the economic and social origins of HIV/AIDS (Parker,
2002). The advances in funding offer improved clarity in relation to the supply
of resources, greater efforts to challenge the epidemic/disease, and better
decision making of program design and application, which in the past critics
have identified as HIVS/AIDS research related issues (Parker, 2002). In order
to assess own efforts and aids in response to HIV/AIDS, for other nations, the
United States is undoubtedly a frequent point of reference. In addition to it
being one of the richest nations, the United States has also reported to shape
the HIV/AIDS epidemic as a product of organisational differences between and
within nations (Parker, 2002).

            However, data has also shown
commitment problems in terms of funding from governments. Between 1997 and
2006, Annan reported a cause for concern due the lack of response from the
United States towards the HIV/AIDS epidemic and international health more
broadly (Parker, 2002). An improved response from the United States during that
time may have resulted in a lower prevalence of the disease within today’s
society, by achieving more effective prevention and treatment programs. It also
resulted in the global fight against HIV/AIDS fell short of its goals, and the
most advanced chances as a response to the epidemic has been lost (Parker,
2002). Losing this opportunity to restore an understanding of health as a
fundamentally public good has been a huge disadvantage and loss to with or
vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infections (Parker, 2002). In the past decade, the lack
of commitment the lack of global commitment in the fight against the HIV/AIDS
epidemic has become more serious, more so from Western countries.

However, critics are questioning their
increasing part in international health, despite the obvious importance of the
provided resources. An overall decline in spending for welfare programs,
education and health has occurred due to structural adjustment policies. These
policies have further been held partly responsible for contributing to the
HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa (Parker, 2002). A topic of which has been
a foremost focus of discussion in past years. Whiteford and Manderson (2000)
identified a cause for concern that the World Bank is increasingly appearing to
oppose the World Health Organisation despite it being considered as the most
dominant worldwide organisation involved in health work (Parker, 2002). In
addition to this, it is often forgotten that although a large sum of money was invested
by the World Bank to help confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic, they are still only
loans and not donations (Parker, 2002). Despite that the loans are often agreed
with fair interest rates, developing countries are already obliged to commit a
large proportion of their annual gross national products to pay of previously
agreed loans. The addition of the loans from the World Bank are now being
considered to contribute to the already increasing debt of many low-income
countries, therefore donations should be considered (Parker, 2002). The wider
problems of already existing debt levels in low income countries must be
considered and addressed by these organisations to develop a better
understanding of the economic and social growth in association to public
health. In both the North and South, a call has been made by treatment
campaigners, as they protest this is the only solution to increase public
health budgets in developing countries. By doing so, they hope this will allow
and increase the application of suitable treatment and care programs (Parker,
2002).

The World Bank and IMF introduced
‘structural adjustment’ loan conditions which were aimed to reduce inflation to
manageable levels, partially in response to debt crisis (Rowden et al., 2004). However,
as a result the overall national spending experienced a substantial cut, thus
affecting health budgets of many low-income countries. A UNICEF supported study
completed in 2004 concluded by 1987, a combination of; increase interest
payments, increase trading costs, cuts in social spending and overall global
economic recessions had resulted in basic indicators of child welfare as
education, immunisation and nutrition (Labonte & Schrecker, 2004, Rowden,
2004).

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Regardless of the identification of
these concerns, it is also important to address the progression of efforts of
response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. For example, in order to emphasise HIV/AIDS
as an urgency in the international policy agenda, in 2001 UNAIDS (the Joint
United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS) engaged the world to achieve its primary
aim of zero new HIV infections and HIV/AIDS related deaths (UNIAIDS, 2018), by organising
an innovative Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly (Parker,
2002). Despite there being improvements needed to ensure the policy is
successful in practice, the special session resulted in a Declaration of
Commitment on HIV/AIDS which marked significant improvement (Parker, 2002). In
previous years, Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations from
1997-2006, has also directed international policy debates regarding global
health and HIV/AIDS more specifically. Throughout the 9 years, the involved
role of Annan has supported advanced new funding mechanisms to financially
support the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and additionally initiated
deeper debate regarding the economic and social origins of HIV/AIDS (Parker,
2002). The advances in funding offer improved clarity in relation to the supply
of resources, greater efforts to challenge the epidemic/disease, and better
decision making of program design and application, which in the past critics
have identified as HIVS/AIDS research related issues (Parker, 2002). In order
to assess own efforts and aids in response to HIV/AIDS, for other nations, the
United States is undoubtedly a frequent point of reference. In addition to it
being one of the richest nations, the United States has also reported to shape
the HIV/AIDS epidemic as a product of organisational differences between and
within nations (Parker, 2002).

            However, data has also shown
commitment problems in terms of funding from governments. Between 1997 and
2006, Annan reported a cause for concern due the lack of response from the
United States towards the HIV/AIDS epidemic and international health more
broadly (Parker, 2002). An improved response from the United States during that
time may have resulted in a lower prevalence of the disease within today’s
society, by achieving more effective prevention and treatment programs. It also
resulted in the global fight against HIV/AIDS fell short of its goals, and the
most advanced chances as a response to the epidemic has been lost (Parker,
2002). Losing this opportunity to restore an understanding of health as a
fundamentally public good has been a huge disadvantage and loss to with or
vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infections (Parker, 2002). In the past decade, the lack
of commitment the lack of global commitment in the fight against the HIV/AIDS
epidemic has become more serious, more so from Western countries.

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