Where did the Aryans come from? Ans: The Aryans came from the Caspian Sea region. Q2. When did the Aryans come to India? Ans: The Aryans came to India around 1500 BC. Q3. Where did the Aryans settle first in India? Ans: The Aryans settled in the area covering eastern Afghanistan, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab and fringes of western Uttar Pradesh. Q4.
Name the oldest book of the Aryans. Ans: Rig Veda is the oldest book of the Aryans. Q5. What do you mean by the later Vedic period? Ans: Later Vedic Period is the period that falls between the end of the Rigvedic period and the rise of Buddhism, i.e. roughly between 1000 to 600 BC.
Q6. What are the sources that help us to know about the later Vedic period? Ans: Rigveda, Upanishads, Sutras, Vedangas, Upa-Vedas, Smritis and the Puranas are the sources of information about the later Vedic period. Q7. Who were the authors of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata? Ans: Valmiki is the author of Ramayana and Vedvyasa is the author of Mahabharata. Q8.
What was the language introduced by the Aryans in India? Ans: Sanskrit was the language introduced by the Aryans in India. Q9. Name three important kingdoms of the later Vedic period. Ans: Kosala, Kasi and Videha were the three important kingdoms of the later Vedic period. Q10. What were the two sacrifices performed by the kings? Ans: Ashwamedha and Rajasuya were the two sacrifices performed by the kings. Q11.
Who were the new officials in the administrative set up of the later Vedic period? Ans: Suta (charioteer), Bhagadugha (collector of taxes) and the Purohita (priest), Senani (army commander) and the Gramini (village headman) of the Rigvedic period. Q12. What function did the brahmanas perform? Ans: The brahmanas performed Yajna and studied the shastras. Q13. What were the four ashramas of life? Ans: Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Sanyas were the four ashramas, each spanning about twenty-five years of life. Q14.
What was a gurukul? Name some of the subjects taught in the gurukul. Ans: Education was imparted in the residence of the guru or the Gurukul. Vedasj logic, ethics, astronomy, astrology, statecraft, mathematics, grammar and medicine were taught in the gurukul. Q15. What were the main crops cultivated in the later Vedic period? Ans: Barley, wheat, rice, beans and sesamum were some of the chief crops cultivated. Q16.
What were the new occupations in the later Vedic period? Ans: Smelter, carpenter, weaver, leather-worker, dyer, jeweller and potter were some of the many occupations of the later Vedic period. Q17. What is a nishka? Ans: Nishka was a term used in the later Vedic period, which served as a means of exchange.
It could be a gold coin or even a piece of gold, which had a definite weight but no state authority. Q18. What were the metals known to the people of the later Vedic period? Ans: Sisa or lead, Trapu or tin were the metals known to the people of the later Vedic period. Q19. Name some of the new Gods who came to be worshipped in the later Vedic period. Ans: Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva were the new Gods who came to be worshipped in the later Vedic period. Q20.
What do you mean by the doctrine of Karma? Ans: The doctrine of Karma (actions) means one should do good acts so that he may improve himself in his next birth.