Q1. Define Iron Age. Ans: The Iron Age in India is believed to have begun in around 1000 BC. It was during this period that the use of iron began. Q2. Name two Harappan sites from which iron objects have been recovered. Ans: Lothal and Allahdino are the two Harappan sites from which iron objects have been recovered.
Q3. Where in peninsular India do we get the earliest evidence of iron? Ans: Raichur Doab and Hallur are the sites in peninsular India from which we get the eartliest evidence of iron. Q4. Into how many periods can the early urban growth in India be divided? Ans: The early urban growth in India falls into two periods.
The first period is of the Harappan civilization probably between c. 2900 BC and c. 2000 BC. The second period is supposed to have begun from around 600 BC well into the early centuries of AD. Q5. How do we know that the smelting of iron ore was known to Indians? Ans: The presence of iron objects, which could be dated between 1000 BC to 600 BC, and the discovery of furnaces, slag and certain specific tools used by blacksmiths, in Atranjikhera in UP, suggest that not only were iron goods manufactured but that smelting of iron ore was also carried out. Q6. Give one example to show that iron did not play a causative role in the urban process.
Ans: Archaeologists have found iron objects in south India much before it experienced transition to urbanism. Q7. Did the use of iron lead to large scale clearing of forests? If so, why? Ans: The use of axes made of iron made it easier to clear forests and cut trees. Hence, the discovery of iron did lead to the large scale clearing of forests. Q8.
How did iron sustain the urban growth? Ans: When forests were cleared in large numbers land was readily available for colonization and cultivation. Hence there was an appreciable growth of urban towns during that period.