Define Industrial Revolution. Ans: A series of changes took place that transformed Great Britain in particular and Europe in general, from a largely rural population making a living almost entirely on agriculture to a town-centred society engaged increasingly in factory manufacture. This change was radical in nature, hence this period is known as the Industrial Revolution.
Q2. Who coined the term ‘Industrial Revolution’? Ans: Blanqui, a French socialist in 1837 coined the term. Q3. Where did the Revolution begin and when? Ans: The Industrial Revolution began in England in 1750. Q4. Which two movements can be regarded as the precursor of the Industrial Revolution? Ans: The Renaissance and the Reformation movements can be regarded as the precursor of the Industrial Revolution. Q5.
Name two important causes that made England the first country to experience the Revolution. Ans: Political stability and availability of coal and iron were the two important causes that made England the first country to experience the Revolution. Q6. How did the constitutional government of Great Britain help in bringing about the Industrial Revolution? Ans: The government of Great Britain was a parliamentary form of government, hence all got a free hand to do things on their own without much interference from their national government. This helped in Industrial Revolution. Q7. When did Great Britain experience the ‘Demographic Revolution’? Ans: After 1750 Great Britain experienced the ‘Demographic Revolution’. Q8.
When and by whom was the Flying Shuttle invented? Ans: The Flying Shuttle was invented in 1733 by John Kay. Q9. In which year and by whom was the Spinning Mule invented? Ans: The Spinning Mule was invented in 1779 by Samuel Crompton.
Q10. What was the significance of Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny? Ans: Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny could spin eight threads at a time instead of one thread like the old fashion spinning wheel. Q11. What is the importance of James Watt? Ans: In 1769, James Watt improved on the existing steam engines and made an engine which could drive the piston backward and forward and turn the wheels.
His steam engine became the centre of every industry. Q12. Who is regarded as the father of the railway system? Where was the railway line to carry passengers laid? Ans: George Stephenson is regarded as the father of the railway system. The railway to carry passengers was laid in 1830 between Liverpool and Manchester. Q13. When and where was the first railway line built in India? Ans: In 1853 the first railway line was laid to carry passengers from Mumbai to Thane.
Q14. Who improved on Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny? Ans: Richard Arkwright improved on Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny. Q15. What was the Crompton’s Mule? Ans: A weaver named Crompton invented this machine which combined the advantages of Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny and Arkwright’s Water Frame. Q16. Name the first warship built of iron plates in England. Ans: The first warship built of iron plates was the ‘Warrior’ in 1860.
Q17. Name the first Asian country to be industrialized. Ans: Japan was the first Asian country to be industrialized. Q18. Why did Russia face problems in her industrialization? Ans: Russia was basically an agricultural country where peasants were bonded to their masters and could not leave their lands without their permission.
Serfdom was abolished in 1861 and after that peasants got employed in factories. Also the Tsars were not progressive and only after the Communist Revolution did things change. Russia became the last European country to experience the Industrial Revolution. Q19. State two economic effects of the Industrial Revolution. Ans: The two economic effects of the Industrial Revolution were urbanization and emergence of factory system.
Q20. Name two important cities of England. Ans: The two important cities of England were Liverpool and Manchester. Q21. State two social effects of the Industrial Revolution. Ans: The two social effects of the Industrial Revolution were: i.
Emergence of Industrial Capitalism which led to a division of society between the owners or the capitalists and the workers who earned wages under the owners ii. Trade Union movements to look after the rights of the workers Q22. What do you mean by ‘Industrial Capitalism’? Ans: The Industrial Revolution resulted in the growth of industrial capitalism. As a result, the society was divided into capitalists, i.e. those who owned the means of production, and the workers, who worked under the capitalists for wages. This resulted in the concentration of economic power in a few hands, leading to gross social inequalities. A wide gulf was created between the capitalists and the workers.
Q23. Name some of the important socialist thinkers. Ans: Karl Marx, Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Saint Simon are the four important socialist thinkers.
Q24. What is meant by Imperialism? Ans: One of the political effects of the Industrial Revolution was the desire on the part of the industrialized countries to extend their territorial limits. This tendency is known as ‘imperialism’. Q25. State two main activities of a modern Welfare State.
Ans: The two main activities of a modern Welfare State are: i. In a modern Welfare State citizens receive public assistance during sickness, unemployment and old age ii. Various social security measures are also taken up for their welfare