Q1. State one change that Islam influenced on polity. Ans: India for the first time saw itself getting converted to a military state based on force. Q2. What was the tax imposed on the non-Muslims? Ans: Jaziya was the tax imposed on the non-Muslims.
Q3. What was the fundamental difference between Islamic and Hindu society? Ans: Islamic society was based on equality as against the stringent caste system of the Hindu society. Q4. What were karkhanas? Ans: Karkhanas were workshops for the workers initiated by the Sultans for the development of trade. Q5. State one impact of Islam on culture. Ans: One major impact of Islam on the essential Indian-Hindu culture was the emergence of a common language called Urdu. Q6.
Who were the Sufis? State any two principles of Sufism and state one influence of Sufism on Indian society. Ans: The Muslim mystics came to be known as Sufis. The word sufi literally means wool. The mystics usually covered themselves up in woollen garments, hence the name. Two priniciples of Sufism are: i. There is only one God and that all human beings are equal ii.
Individual souls are manifestations of the Supreme Being and that God can be reached through love and devotion and through blind observance of rituals One major influence of sufism on Indian society was the bridging of the gap between the Hindus and the Muslims. Q7. What are silsilas? How many are there? Name three of them. Who was the founder of Auliya silsila? Ans: The sufis had twelve orders called ‘silsilas’.
Each order had a chief saint or ‘pir’. Three chief orders of the sufis in India were – Chishti, Auliya and Suhrawardi. Hazrat Khwaja Nizamuddin Auliya was the founder of the Auliya silsila. Q8. What were samas? Ans: Sama was the devotional music propagated by the Sufis. Q9.
What led to the rise of Bhakti movement? Name any two women Bhaktas. Ans: Islam with its catholic and liberal outlook, equality of status among its followers, a complete negation of ostentatious rituals and the concept of one God attracted a large number of Hindus. To combat this as well as to purify the Hindu society of its evils, many social and religious reformers came to the forefront and preached monism and devotion, without any elaborate rituals, to the people. This was the bhakti movement. Mirabai and Mahadevi Yakka were two great women Bhaktas. Q10. What was the core of Kabir’s teachings? Ans: Kabir equated Ram with Rahim, Hari with Hazrat and Krishna with Karim.
For him there was no distinction between Muslim and Hindu. He considered both Allah and Ram as the breath of his body. Q11. Who was Chaitanya Mahaprabhu? What was his famous work? Ans: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (AD 1485 – 1 533) popularized the worship of Shri Krishna through kirtan or devotional music and dance. His famous work is ‘Chaitanya Charitamrita’. Q12. State any two principles of Bhakti. The two principles of Bhakti were: i.
Bhakti saints preached the meaninglessness of ritualism and formalities; the sole objective was to unite with God ii. All men are equal in the eyes of God Q13. Who was the main leader of Nathapanthis? Ans: Gorakhnath was the main leader of Nathapanthis. Q14. Who were the important saints of Maharashtra? Three important saints of Maharashtra were: Sant Dhyaneshwar (AD 1275 – 1296), Sant Tukaram (AD 1608 – 1651) and Sant Guru Ramdas (AD 1608 – 1681). Q15. What were the essential teachings of Guru Nanak? Ans: Guru Nanak’s teachings were simple.
He said, there is one and only one God (Ek Onkar). He is without any form (Nirankar), internal (Akal) and ineffable (Alakhi). He advocated the middle path between extreme asceticism and pleasure seeking. He believed in the concept of karma and said that only good actions could lead to realization of God.
Through good actions individual souls (Atma) could reach God (Paramatma). He advised his followers to recite the word ‘Satnam’ or the true name throughout their lives. Q16. Who were the main saints of south India? Ans: The main saints of south India were: Ramanujacharya (AD 1017 – 1137), Madhavacharya (AD 1238- 1317) and Vallabhacharya (AD 1469- 1530).
Q17. State the main features of Muslim architecture and state one main architectural feature of a mosque. Ans: The main features of Muslim architecture are: i. Muslim structures were open, airy and spacious.
Muslims, with Islam’s emphasis on congregational prayer, believed in common worship and therefore required a spacious place ii. Muslim architecture had a lot of domes, arches and vaults Mosque has an open courtyard for common worship; this is one main architectural feature of a mosque. Q18. Who built the Quwat-ul-Islam mosque? Ans: Quwat-ul-Islam mosque was built by Qutubuddin Aibak. Q19. When was the Qutub Minar constructed? State any two of its architectural features. Ans: Qutubuddin Aibak started building the Qutub Minar in AD 1199 and his son-in-law Iltutmish completed it in the year AD 1230. i.
It is the highest stone tower in India ii. It has four stories diminishing as they ascend. Each storey has a projecting balcony Q20. Name the main works of Amir Khusrau. Ans: Mulla-ul-Anwar, Ayina-i-Sikandari, Laila Majnu, Ashiqa, the Nuh Siphir, the Quiranat Sadayan, the Khazan-ul-Futuh were some of Amir Khusrao’s main works. Q21. Who was called the parrot of India? Ans: Amir Khusrau was known as ‘Tutt-i-Hind’ or the ‘Parrot of India’.
Q22. Who wrote Prithviraj Raso? Ans: Chand Bardai wrote Prithviraj Raso in the 12th century. Q23. Which language was called the Zabaan-i-Hindavi? Ans: Urdu was called the Zabaan-i-Hindavi.
Q24. Who was Pampa? Ans: Pampa was a well-known Kannad poet who wrote ‘Adipurana’. Q25. Who was Bhaskaracharya? Ans: Bhaskaracharya was great astronomer during the Sultanate period.