Q1. a municipality exist in the Harappan


Why is the Harappan civilization so named? Ans: Harappa, situated on the banks of the river Ravi in the Montgomery district in west Punjab was the first excavated site of this civilization. This is why it is also called the Harappan civilization. Q2. Why is the discovery of Harappan civilization important in history? Ans: Prior to the discovery of the Harappan civilization, it was believed that Indian civilization began with the advent of the Aryans. Hence the discovery of this civilization is responsible for pushing back the antiquity of Indian civilization to the copper-bronze age. Q3.

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Who discovered the cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa? Ans: Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni discovered Harappa and Rakhaldas Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro. Q4. Name four important sites of the Harappan civilization apart from Mohenjodaro and Harappa. Ans: Chanhu-Daro in Sind, Lothal in Gujarat, Kalibangan in the Ganganagar district of Rajasthan and Ropar situated at the foothills of the Simla hills are the four important sites of the Harappan civilization. Q5. Did a municipality exist in the Harappan city? How do you account for its existence? Ans: Existence of an elaborate drainage system comparable with that of any modern city has prompted scholars and historians to presuppose the existence of some kind of a municipal organization in Harappa. Q6. Where were the following buildings located? a) The Great Bath.

b) The Great Granary, c) The Assembly Hall. d) The Dockyard. Ans: a.

The Great Bath – Mohenjodaro b. The Great Granary – Harappa c. The Assembly Hall – Mohenjodaro d.

The Dockyard – Lothal. Q7. What are the different types of buildings that were unearthed at the various Indus sites? Ans: The buildings unearthed at the various sites of the Harappan civilization may be classified under three categories: i. Dwelling houses ii.

Larger buildings iii. Other structures like the public baths, the granary and dockyard Q8. With whom did the people of Indus have flourishing trade relations? Ans: Indus had flourishing trade relations with Mesopotamia and may have had trade links with Central Asia and Afghanistan. Q9.

Give two instances to show that seals throw light on the religion of the Harappan people. Ans: Indus Valley seals help us to know about their religion in the following ways: i. The seal with Mother Goddess inscribed on it shows that the Indus people were worshippers of the earliest form of Shakti or female energy ii. Another seal showing a three-horned deity sitting in yogic posture surrounded by animals is identified with God Pashupati or Shiva Q10. Mention any two probable reasons for the destruction of the civilization.

Ans: Most archaeologists are of the view that climatic changes and earthquakes may have led to the decline of the civilization.


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