Q 1. Define ‘Fundamental Rights’. Ans: Fundamental Rights are the basic rights guaranteed to the citizens by the Constitution of India. Q2. Give two examples which serve as precedents to our Fundamental Rights.
Ans: The two examples which serve as precedents to our Fundamental Rights are: i. The Declaration of the Rights of Man passed by the French Government ii. Bill of Rights included in the US Constitution Q3. State two reasons as to why the Fundamental Rights occupy an important place in our Constitution. Ans: The Fundamental Rights occupy an important place in our Constitution because: i. The Fundamental Rights shield people from encroachments by the legislature when the ruling party misuses its power ii.
The Fundamental Rights emphasize the fundamental unity of India wherein all the citizens enjoy the same liberties irrespective of race, caste and social status Q4. Mention any two characteristic features of the Fundamental Rights. Ans: The two characteristic features of the Fundamental Rights are: i. The Fundamental Rights form an integral part of the Constitution and are enshrined in Articles 14 to 32 in Part III of the Constitution of India ii. The Fundamental Rights are universal in character in that they are guaranteed by the Constitution to every citizen of the country irrespective of caste, creed or gender Q5.
Mention any three types of equality which the Fundamental Rights guarantee. Ans: The three types of equality guaranteed by the Fundamental Rights are: i. Equality before Law (Article 14) ii. Prohibition against Discrimination (Article 15) iii. Equality of Opportunity (Article 16) Q6.
The Constitution prohibits the State to discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste or sex. Mention the two exceptions to this right. Ans: The two exceptions to the right of the State to discriminate against any citizen are: i. The State may make any special provision for women and children ii. Special provisions may be made for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward class of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes Q7.
Mention two steps taken by the Government of India to bring social equality among the citizens of India. Ans: The two steps taken by the Government of India to bring social equality are: i. The Government has abolished untouchability and its practice in any form ii. The Government also prohibits the State from conferring any titles, except military or academic distincitions, thereby maintaining social equality Q8. Mention the six Fundamental freedoms which are included in the Right to Freedom (Article 19). Ans: The six Fundamental freedoms are: i.
Freedom of speech and expression ii. Freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms iii. Freedom to form associations or unions iv. Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India v. Freedom to reside and settle in any part of India vi. Freedom to carry on any lawful trade or occupation Q9. Mention any two rights of an individual who has been arrested under ordinary circumstances.
Ans: The two rights of an individual who has been arrested under ordinary circumstances are: i. Right to Protection in respect of Conviction for Offences (Article 20) ii. Right to Protection of Life and Personal Liberty (Article 21) Q10. Define ‘Preventive Detention’. Ans: Preventive Detention means ‘detention of a person without trial’. The reasons could be connected with the security of the State, or the maintenance of public order, or the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community, or for reasons connected with defence, foreign affairs or security of India. Q11. Mention two rights of a person detained under a Preventive Detention Act.
Ans: The two rights of a person detained under a Preventive Detention Act are: i. Right to know the grounds on which he has been detained ii. Right to make a representation against the detention order Q12. Name the Fundamental Right that prohibits ‘begar’ and forced labour. Ans: Prohibition of Traffic in human beings and forced labour (Article 23) is the Fundamental Right that prohibits ‘begar’ and forced labour. Q13. Mention two Fundamental Rights that indicate that India is a Secular State. Ans: The two Fundamental Rights that indicate that India is a Secular State are: i.
Freedom of Conscience and free profession and propagation of Religion (Article 25) ii. Freedom to manage Religious Affairs (Article 26) Q14. Name the Fundamental Right aimed at preserving the language, script and culture of the minorities. Ans: Article 29 gives minorities a right to conserve their distinct language, script and culture. Q15. Which Fundamental Right protects all other Fundamental Rights? Ans: Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32) is a right to enforce all other Fundamental Rights. Q16.
When can the Fundamental Rights be suspended? Ans: Fundamental Rights can be suspended during Emergency. Q17. What is meant by the term ‘Writ’? Ans: Writ is a form of a written command in the name of a court or other legal authority to do or abstain from doing a specified act. Q18. What is meant by the following – a) Writ of Habeas Corpus, b) Writ of Mandamus, c) Writ of Certiorari and d) Writ of Quo Warranto? Ans: a) ‘Habeas Corpus’ is a Latin term, which means, ‘you may have the body’. By issuing this writ, the court orders the arresting authority to produce the arrested person in court so that it can decide if the arrest or detention is lawful or not. If not, then the arrested person is immediately set free.
b) ‘Mandamus’ is a Latin term meaning, ‘we command’. By issuing this writ, the court commands a subordinate court, a public body or an official to perform his or its duty properly. c) ‘Certiorari’ literally means, ‘to be more fully informed of’. This writ is issued by a superior court to an inferior court asking it to submit the record of a case pending before it, thus preventing the latter to deal with a case which goes beyond its jurisdiction. d) The writ of Quo Warranto is issued to a public servant to enquire into the legality of his holding a public office.
This writ may only be issued with respect to offices of a public nature. Q19. Give the full form of the following: a) MISA b) DIR c) NSA and d) ESMA. Ans: a) Maintenance of Internal Security Act b) Defence of India Rules c) National Security Act and d) Essential Services Maintenance Act.
Q20. Name the Writ that shall be issued under the following circumstance. i) When a person is wrongfully detained or restrained. ii) To compel an inferior court or an individual to perform their duty. iii) To keep the courts within limits of their jurisdiction.
iv) When a superior court desires to be informed of what is going on in subordinate court. v) Against a person who usurps any public office. Ans: i) Habeas Corpus ii) Mandamus iii) Prohibition iv) Certiorari v) Quo Warranto